We also examine the determinants of the return gap. We ﬁnd that
estimated trading costs are negatively related to the return gap. Also,
most funds in our sample exhibit relatively large correlations between
the hypothetical holdings returns and the investor returns, indicating that
their actual investment strategies do not differ signiﬁcantly from their
disclosed strategies. However, some funds have relatively low correlations
between holdings and investor returns.
We have not named people, agencies, or projects in this book. The authors have
done this both to honor the privacy of conversations and to reflect the fact that
any comment we quote represents a widely-shared viewpoint rather than that
of a single individual. The Listening Project (through which these conversations
occurred) was not evaluating individual projects or agencies, but instead focused on
understanding the long-term, cumulative effects of different types of international
aid efforts on people, communities, and their societies over time. ...
The code executed by the replica proxy for supporting
Byzantine clients is presented in Figure 4. To be able to
compare if the sequence of operations submitted initially
is the same that is submitted at commit time, the coor-
dinator also logs the operations and their results as they
are executed (line 42). At commit time, if the received
list differs from the log, the coordinator discards exe-
cuted operations in the current transaction and executes
operations in the received list, as any other replica.
Students are expected to exhibit the Speaking and Listening Skills in both formal and
informal settings, adapting their language use accordingly. In particular, students
should be able to use formal Standard English when called for in academic and
Group and One-to-One:
Students are expected to utilize the speaking and listening skills in both groups and
one-to-one. The application of these skills may be different in varied settings.
the absence of further guidance on the relative importance of the two argu-
ments, our prior about the relative smartness of institutional versus individual
money f lows remains neutral.With regard to the direction ofmoney f lows, there
are at least two reasons to believe that investors’ fund sells have a weaker as-
sociation with future performance than their fund buys. First, the disposition
effect discussed in Odean (1998) suggests that sell decisions are generally not
In fact, as in many recent publications in mathematics educa-
tion, much of what is described . . . reﬂects two movements, “sit-
uated learning” and “constructivism”, which have been gaining
inﬂuence on thinking about education and educational research.
In our view, some of the central educational recommendations
of these movements have questionable psychological foundations.
It is important to note that the requirements for sustainability condi-
tions vary by subsection because they are inherently different. In par-
ticular, these requirements to create sustainability may be more difficult
to achieve in practice in water and sanitation, in drainage, and in the
transportation subprojects than they are in building schools or clinics.
Social funds should not replace the public sector in tasks that are the
government’s inherent responsibility. To do so can undermine ongoing
public sector reform and institution-building programs.
The objective of funds should be to reinforce and broaden, rather than
supplant, the role of state institutions in the social field. Undoubtedly, in
many countries, fund portfolios are going to continue to have schools
and health posts and other such social projects because funds have been
shown to be effective in that role.
This conversation is an opportunity to rethink how commitments on gender equality can be anchored in development
partnerships with different actors in the context of post-Rio and post-2015. Participants are expected to discuss
innovative thinking on how MA must advance conceptually and how gender equality can be anchored at the heart of this
When stakeholders seek value protection and internal control assurance,
internal audit’s skill sets must reflect best-in-class capabilities in core financial
and compliance auditing. As stakeholder needs evolve, internal audit is often
called upon to do more to create value through operational improvement.
Delivering operational improvement typically requires a portfolio of skill sets
that build on core internal audit competencies to include risk management
and consultative capabilities.
Will your project lead to materials production or a
publication? If so, you need to get an estimate from the
printers or the organisation producing the materials.
Don’t forget the costs of distributing the materials if
this is part of your aims. CD-ROMs are often
cheaper than print nowadays. Do you have access to the computers and other hardware
you need for the project? Some publicly funded project
sources will contribute to buying what you need.
Bear these in mind as you go through the training. We now turn to the definition of a
project. The shortest definition of a project is one given by Juran (cited in Lewis,
2002:2). He defines it as a problem scheduled for solution. Lewis (2002) himself
defines a project as: A multi-task that has performance, cost, time, and scope
requirements and is done only one time.
That means a project has specific performance requirements that have to be met
(performance); a budget (cost); a definite starting and ending points (time); and
clearly defined range of work to be done...
The Shares have not been and will not be offered for sale or sold in the United States of America, its territories or possessions and all
areas subject to its jurisdiction, or to United States persons, except in a transaction which does not violate the securities laws of the
United States of America.
Hollywood’s loss, in terms of the general narrowing of the horizons
of possibility at the heart of the studio-led machine, was to be the
gain of a newly consolidating form of independent production and
distribution that was beginning to take shape during the 1980s, and
into which some of the inheritance of the Renaissance was carried.
The term ‘independent’ has had rather different connotations at
different periods in the history of American cinema. In the 1930s,
for example, it signiﬁed ‘something less than trash’.
Oracle Label Security adds extensive protection for sensitive information. It delivers multilevel
security capabilities to protect access to data right down to individual rows in tables and
addresses the real world data security and privacy problems faced by government and
commercial entities worldwide. Oracle Label Security can be combined with Virtual Private
Database, Secure Application Roles, and Oracle Database Vault to provide powerful solutions
for protecting personally identifiable information. ...
The resulting view, that financial markets can be subject to inherent instability,
induces governments to intervene to provide depositor protection in some form or
other. Explicit deposit insurance is one approach, while an explicit or implicit deposit
guarantee is another. In either case, general prudential supervision also occurs to limit
the risk incurred by insurers or guarantors. To control the incentives of bank owners
who rely too heavily on government funded deposit insurance, governments typically
enforce some control over bank owners.
The selection of neo-institutional theory as theoretical lens for the dissertation rests on several
First, the theory bears significant potential to generate fresh insights into the
strategy formation process (Mintzberg and Lampel, 1999; Hensmans, 2003). Second, it con-
ceptualizes very well the environment, its actors, its creation, and its internal functioning
In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the authority also develops programs to
educate the public about reducing the risk of becoming a victim of auto theft. In
cooperation with the Philadelphia Eagles National Football League team, the
authority launched a print, radio and online campaign that educates the public
about auto theft prevention.
Uniform Crime Report Data from the Pennsylvania State Police showed that, since
the authority’s inception in 1995, annual auto theft rates have declined by nearly 50
Individual demand gives the quantity purchased for each price. Analogously, the
market demand gives the quantity purchased by all the market participants – the sum
of the individual demands – for each price. This is sometimes called a “horizontal sum”
because the summation is over the quantities for each price. An example is illustrated in
Figure 2-7. For a given price p, the quantity q1 demanded by one consumer, and the
quantity q2 demanded by a second consumer are illustrated. The sum of these
quantities represents the market demand, if the market has...
In 1997, both the underlying confidence and optimism are hard to sustain. The War on
Poverty and its successor programs seem to have made little impact on those populations
that are at the lowest economic levels in U.S. society. If anything, the widening income
distribution and the curbing of governmental expenditures for these groups have left
them worse off. Yet one result of the efforts to address poverty in the intervening years
has been the growth of well-articulated theoretical notions coupled with serious efforts
to ground these ideas in empirical analysis.