Insect defenses

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  • In contrast to other animals, humans sense their world chiefly by vision, sound, and touch. We have, in general, a remarkably undeveloped sense of smell, and so it is not surprising that we fail to appreciate how important chemical signals are in the lives of other organisms. Chemical signals and cues serve insects in numerous ways, including sexual advertisement, social organization, defense, and finding and recognizing resources.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: The pea aphid genome sequence brings theories of insect defense into question...

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  • Chapter 14 INSECT DEFENSE Although some humans eat insects (section 1.6), many “western” cultures are reluctant to use them as food; this aversion extends no further than humans. For very many organisms, insects provide a substantial food source, because they are nutritious, abundant, diverse.

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  • IN NATURAL HABITATS, plants are surrounded by an enormous number of potential enemies. Nearly all ecosystems contain a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes, mites, insects, mammals, and other herbivorous animals. By their nature, plants cannot avoid these herbivores and pathogens simply by moving away; they must protect themselves in other ways. The cuticle (a waxy outer layer) and the periderm (secondary protective tissue), besides retarding water loss, provide barriers to bacterial and fungal entry.

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  • The defensive function of the glucosinolate–myrosinase system in plants of the order Capparales results from the formation of isothiocyanates when glucosinolates are hydrolysed by myrosinases upon tissue damage. In some glucosinolate-containing plant species, as well as in the insect herbivore Pieris rapae, protein factors alter the outcome of myrosinase-catalysed glu-cosinolate hydrolysis, leading to the formation of products other than isothiocyanates.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: La défense des forêts contre les insectes. Approches actuelles et perspectives...

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  • In ruminants, some leaf-eating animals, and some insects, defensive lyso-zymes have been adapted to become digestive enzymes, in order to digest bacteria in the stomach. Digestive lysozyme has been reported to be resis-tant to protease and to have optimal activity at acidic pH. The structural basis of the adaptation providing persistence of lytic activity under severe gastric conditions remains unclear.

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  • Phenolic compounds represent a large group of molecules with a variety of functions in plant growth, development, and defense. Phenolic compounds include signaling molecules, pigments and flavors that can attract or repel, as well as compounds that can protect the plant against insects, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Most phenolic compounds are present as esters or glycosides rather than as free compounds. Tannins and lignin are phenolic polymers.

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  • When challenged by the dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor scN, the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) adapts to the inhibitory effects by readjusting the transcriptome of its digestive system, including the specific activation of a cathepsin B-like cysteine protease CmCatB.

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  • Antimicrobial peptides form one of the first lines of defense against invading pathogens by killing the microorganisms and/ormobilizing the host innate immune system. Although over 800 antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from many different species, especially insects, few have been reported frommarinefish. Sequenceanalysisof twogenomic clones (15.6 and 12.5 kb) from the winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus(Walbaum) resulted in the identification of multiple clustered genes for novel pleuro-cidin-like antimicrobial peptides....

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