Insect ecology

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  • An Ecosystem Approach provides a modern perspective of insect ecology that integrates two approaches traditionally used to study insect ecology: evolutionary and ecosystem. This integration substantially broadens the scope of insect ecology and contributes to prediction and resolution of the effects of current environmental changes, as these affect and are affected by insects. The third edition includes an updated and expanded synthesis of feedback and interactions between insects and their environment.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'insect ecology an ecosystem approach', nông - lâm - ngư, nông nghiệp phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • SECTION V SYNTHESIS THE PREVIOUS FOUR SECTIONS HAVE ADDRESSED insect ecology at the individual, population, community, and ecosystem levels of organization. Resource acquisition and allocation by individuals (Section I) can be seen to depend on population (Section II), community (Section III), and ecosystem (Section IV) conditions that the individual also influences.

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  • In contrast to other animals, humans sense their world chiefly by vision, sound, and touch. We have, in general, a remarkably undeveloped sense of smell, and so it is not surprising that we fail to appreciate how important chemical signals are in the lives of other organisms. Chemical signals and cues serve insects in numerous ways, including sexual advertisement, social organization, defense, and finding and recognizing resources.

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  • T his second edition provides an updated and expanded synthesis of feedbacks and interactions between insects and their environment. A number of recent studies have advanced understanding of feedbacks or provided useful examples of principles. Molecular methods have provided new tools for addressing dispersal and interactions among organisms and have clarified mechanisms of feedback between insect effects.

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  • SECTION I ECOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL INSECTS THE INDIVIDUAL ORGANISM IS A FUNDAMENTAL unit of ecology. Organisms interact with their environment and affect ecosystem processes largely through their cumulative physiological and behavioral responses to environmental variation. Individual success in finding and using necessary habitats and resources to gain reproductive advantage determines fitness.

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  • SECTION II POPULATION ECOLOGY A POPULATION IS A GROUP OF INTERBREEDING MEMBERS of a species. A number of more or less discrete subpopulations may be distributed over the geographic range of a species population.

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  • 4 Resource Allocation INSECTS ALLOCATE ACQUIRED RESOURCES IN VARIOUS WAYS, DEPENDING on the energy and nutrient requirements of their physiological and behavioral processes. In addition to basic metabolism, foraging, growth, and reproduction, individual organisms also allocate resources.

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  • 6 Population Dynamics POPULATIONS OF INSECTS CAN CHANGE DRAMATICALLY IN SIZE OVER relatively short periods of time as a result of changes in natality, mortality, immigration, and emigration. Under favorable environmental conditions, some species have the capacity to increase population size by orders of magnitude in a few years.

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  • SECTION III COMMUNITY ECOLOGY SPECIES CO-OCCURRING AT A SITE INTERACT TO VARIOUS degrees, both directly and indirectly, in ways that have intrigued ecologists since earliest times. These interactions represent mechanisms that control population dynamics, hence community structure, and also control rates of energy and matter fluxes.

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  • 12 Herbivory HERBIVORY IS THE RATE OF CONSUMPTION BY ANIMALS OF ANY PLANT parts, including foliage, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, or seeds. Direct effects of insects on plant reproductive parts are addressed in Chapter 13. Herbivory is a key ecosystem process that reduces density of plants or plant materials.

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  • 13 Pollination, Seed Predation, and Seed Dispersal INSECTS AFFECT PLANT REPRODUCTION AND ASSOCIATED PROCESSES in a variety of ways. Direct and indirect effects of herbivores on plant production and allocation of resources to reproduction were described in Chapter 12.

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  • 15 Insects as Regulators of Ecosystem Processes INSECTS, AND OTHER ORGANISMS, INEVITABLY AFFECT THEIR ENVIRONMENT through spatial and temporal patterns of resource acquisition and redistribution. Insects respond to environmental changes in ways that dramatically alter ecosystem conditions.

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  • 3 Resource Acquisition ALL ORGANISMS ARE EXAMPLES OF NEGATIVE ENTROPY, IN CONTRAST TO the tendency for energy to be dissipated, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Organisms acquire energy to collect resources and synthesize the organic molecules that are the basis for life processes, growth, and reproduction.

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  • 7 Biogeography GEOGRAPHIC RANGES OF SPECIES OCCURRENCE GENERALLY REFLECT THE tolerances of individual organisms to geographic gradients in physical conditions (see Chapter 2). However, most species do not occupy the entire area of potentially suitable environmental conditions.

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  • 9 Community Structure A COMMUNITY IS COMPOSED OF ALL THE ORGANISMS OCCUPYING A SITE. The extent to which these organisms are co-evolved to form a consistent and recurring integrated community or represent ad hoc assemblages of loosely interacting species remains a topic of much discussion.

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  • 3 Neuroethology of Foraging Alive with color, a patch of flowers is also alive with the constant motion of bumblebees, honeybees, syrphid flies, and other pollinators. A bumblebee lands heavily on a flower, making other insects take flight. She turns, plunges her head into the corolla, and remains motionless.

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  • 10 Community Dynamics COMMUNITY STRUCTURE CHANGES THROUGH TIME AS SPECIES abundances change, altering the network of interactions. Short-term (e.g., seasonal or annual) changes in community structure represent responses to environmental changes that favor some species or affect interaction strength.

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  • SECTION IV ECOSYSTEM LEVEL THE ECOSYSTEM LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION INTEGRATES species interactions and community structure with their responses to, and effects on, the abiotic environment. Interactions among organisms are the mechanisms governing energy and nutrient fluxes through ecosystems.

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  • 14 Decomposition and Pedogenesis DECOMPOSITION IS THE BREAKDOWN OF DEAD ORGANIC MATTER THAT eventually results in release of CO2, other organic trace gases, water, mineral nutrients, and energy. Pedogenesis largely reflects the activities of animals that mix organic matter with mineral soil.

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