This book contains 20 chapters about the impact, environmental fate, modes of action, efficacy, and non-target effects of insecticides. The chapters are divided into 7 parts. Part 1 covers the non-target effects of insecticides, whereas part 2 is dedicated to integrated methods for pest control, in which insecticides are an important element for diminishing the populations of insect pests.
The present book is a collection of selected original research articles and reviews providing adequate and up-to-date information related to pesticides control, assessment, and toxicity. The first section covers a large spectrum of issues associated with the ecological, molecular, and biotechnological approaches to the understanding of the biological control, the mechanism of the biocontrol agents action, and the related effects.
It is evident that insecticides have been used to boost food production to a considerable
extent and to control vectors of disease. However, these advantages that are of great
economic benefits sometimes come with disadvantages when subjected to critical
environmental and human health considerations. Many insecticides are newly synthesized
whose health and environmental implications are unknown.
Copper fungicides are environmentally unfriendly. They are very toxic to fish and aquatic
invertebrates, such as crab, shrimp and oysters. There are cases where most animal life in soil,
including large earthworms, have been eliminated by the extensive use of copper-containing
fungicides in orchards. It is strongly bioaccumulated and is very persistent. Once a soil is
contaminated with copper, there is no practical way to remove it.
The organic insecticide rotenone has been found to be toxic to pigs, rats and dogs and is is very
toxic to fish. It causes skin and eye irritations.
Agricultual chemicals include not only pesticides for protecting plants, such as insecticides, germicides, herbicides and rodenticides, but also fertilizers and growth regulating substances being used in agricultural production and horticulture. In poisoning cases with agricultural chemicals, the causative poisons are largely the pesticides. There are many cases, in which the poisoning due to exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide is obvious with clinical symptoms .
Since the synthesis of DDT during 1874 several insecticide molecules have been
identified and synthesized globally for the control of insect pests, pathogens, microbes,
vectors of human and animal diseases, weeds and other obnoxious organisms.
Currently, 1.8 billion kgs of pesticides are used annually worldwide in the form of
herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. There are more than 1055 active ingredients
registered as pesticides till date implying that there is no best alternate for the
Pharmacokinetic Interactions Causing Decreased Drug Effects
Gastrointestinal absorption can be reduced if a drug interaction results in drug binding in the gut, as with aluminum-containing antacids, kaolin-pectin suspensions, or bile acid sequestrants. Drugs such as histamine H 2 receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors that alter gastric pH may decrease the solubility and hence absorption of weak bases such as ketoconazole.