Insulator technology

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  • Nanowires can be defined as structures with thicknesses or diameters of tens of nanometers or less and unconstrained lengths. Many different types of nanowires exist, including metallic (e.g., Ni, Pt, Au or different alloys based on metals), semiconducting (e.g., Si, InP, GaN, etc.), insulating (e.g., SiO2, TiO2), and molecular nanowires (e.g. organic DNA or inorganic). Nanowires have many interesting properties that are not seen in bulk or 3-D materials.

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  • The design and analysis of a racetrack resonator based on a multimode interference (MMI) coupler are presented in this paper. In order to describe the characteristics of an MMI coupler, a matrix description of the MMI coupler, which takes into account the effect of higher order modes in the structure, is developed. A design approach that is based on this matrix description is proposed. The usefulness of this design method is illustrated by means of an example based on Silicon on Insulator (SOI) technology....

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  • The energy crisis of the mid 1970’s gave birth to a movement to conserve energy. Over the ensuing years much has been done to reduce the energy consumption of new and existing buildings. Lighting efficiency has improved so much that today we use ½ the wattage without sacrificing lumens. Improved construction methods, better insulation and high efficiency windows have also helped reduce energy consumption. However, all of these measures have resulted in a reduction of Sensible heat gains while Latent heat gains have increased.

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  • Since the first edition of this handbook, semiconductor technology has gone through a continued evolution of new devices and materials like never before. Wafer sizes continue to grow with most of the new fabs equipped for 12-inch wafers. The changes are triggered by many considerations: continued need to provide more functions at lower cost; technology features less than 1000 Å requiring new processes, and exponential increase in the number of device elements.

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  • The skin is the largest organ of the body and its main function is to protect the organism against undesirable effects of the environment. The skin is composed of three different layers: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis contains the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the epidermis, that acts as the barrier function of the skin due to its very high density and its low hydration. The dermis is an extensive vascular network providing skin nutrition, repair, thermal regulation and immune response.

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  • To maximize the extent of the photonic bandgap in a finite-height photonic-crystal (PhC) slab one can increase the fill-factor in the PhC lattice. Among the realistic choices of possible 2D lattices, high fill- factor triangular lattices of cylindrical holes in a high index dielectric, namely silicon, are by far the most commonly used. In this paper, we present a method for fabrication of very high fill-factor PhC devices in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates using electron-beam lithography and high-aspect-ratio reactive-ion etching (RIE).

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  • Following World War II, the high quality, technologically advanced products of the United States dominated world markets. With the oil shock of the 1970s, however, many of the economic advantages associated with cheap petroleum were lost and the recovered economies of Europe and Asia emerged as strong competitors in many product areas. The innovative technologies of the US could no longer insulate industries from the customer oriented approaches of European and Asian producers.

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  • With technology advancements in semiconductor devices such as insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and gate commutated thyristors (GCTs), modern highpower medium voltage (MV) drives are increasingly used in petrochemical, mining, steel and metals, transportation and other industries to conserve electric energy, increase productivity and improve product quality. Although research and development of the medium voltage (2.3 KV to 13.8 KV) drive in the 1-MW to 100-MW range are continuously growing, books dedicated to this technology seem unavailable.

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  • The advances in ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) technology mainly have been based on downscaling of the minimum feature size of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. The limit of scaling is approaching and there are unsolved problems such as the number of electrons in the device’s active region. If this number is reduced to less than 10 electrons (or holes), quantum fluctuation errors will occur and the gate insulator thickness will become too small to block quantum mechanical tunneling, which may result in unacceptably large leakage currents....

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  • At every moment of every day there is a crash event, affecting everything: transportation, economics, politics, computing, bodies, brains, cups and plates, birds, agriculture, chemistry, health, banking, manufacturing and so on, without end. Despite being insured, insulated by method, knowledge, prediction, risk analysis and technology against accidents, we are nevertheless permanently avoiding them. Every crash is followed by calls for legislation: ‘it must never happen again’ – and yet it always does.

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  • Dominique Russell argues that film music currently exists within a changing “soundscape,” whereby “there has been a change in our sound envi- ronment through the proliferation of ‘private sound bubbles, ’ created through compact music players. Headphone technology creates private soundtracks to common images.... Insulated from room tone and ambient noises, two head- phone wearers become spectators to two very different scenes, depending on what they are listening to.

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  • Just as human operators must be protected from extreme environments, so must the electronics that operate and control a functional system. When the environment proves too warm, the electronics must be insulated, refrigerated, or simply moved to cooler locations. This last option is sometimes very difficult, or impossible, and the perceived fragility of electronics must then be reconsidered. Vacuum-tube technology provides a historical example of this process.

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  • An integral part of ADC’s TrueNet® structured cabling system, these patch cords implement ADC’s AirES® technology. The use of air increases signal strength and improves transmission speed, while reducing crosstalk. As a result this allows the conductor and insulation diameter to be dramatically reduced improving flexability, reducing weight and maximizing tight tray, conduit and duct space.

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