About a dozen mothers sit on gurneys and nurse newborns in a ward that is
nothing more than a long, open room. Two nurses in starched, white uniforms
walk the hallway wearily. They work thirteen-hour shifts, four days a week,
and earn the equivalent of $25 a week. The hospital lacks oxygen equipment,
thermometers, blood pressure machines, and basic pharmaceuticals
antibiotics. Patients are asked to bring their own drugs if they can afford them.
Equipment in surgical suites is old and worn, with rubber cracked and
Duplicate PHI has provided financing for capacity development in the private hospital sector in
some countries, thereby helping to alleviating consumer inconvenience generated by non-price rationing in
public hospitals. Only a few OECD countries have both long waiting times and high levels of population
covered by PHI. Australia has especially emphasised the role private cover plays as the main mechanism
for shifting demand away from overburdened public hospitals, while Ireland has instead placed more
emphasis on the role of the public system in addressing waiting concerns.
The ability of PHI to reduce demand pressures on the public system has nonetheless proven to be
constrained. Increases in the population covered by PHI in Australia and Ireland have not resulted in
unambiguous signs of decline in the level of waiting (Colombo and Tapay, 2003 and 2004b). PHI
membership has not only shifted demand across public and private hospitals but has also increased overall
demand, thereby limiting the impact on waiting times.
Yet the shift towards health-systems strengthening
and its support through the International Health
Partnership (IHP+) and other related initiatives
offer a framework within which SRH may be more
The support offered to ministries of health by
the UNFPA and WHO country offices has been
marked by greater collaboration and a stronger
functional focus. This has been achieved through
harmonization of activities in the United Nations
Development Assistance Framework, and by
practical engagement of technical working groups
and similar structures for SRH.
This means that services which could potentially fall within the remit of both insurance
schemes tend to be shifted to the LTC insurance because this is much cheaper. Secondly,
although the revenues and costs of all the German health funds are equalized to take account
of their respective member structures (age, gender) (Strukturausgleich), this is not the case for
the revenues and costs of the LTC funds. This leads to a high disincentive for the LTC funds
to minimize their costs.
A third criterion for effective research on skills transfer is study over time. To be
certain that students are transferring skills from their first language rather than using
skills learned in their second language, researchers must study subjects who have
received reading instruction in their first language prior to receiving it in their second
language, and who have received sufficient first-language instruction to have developed a
base of first-language skills that can be transferred.
With its focus on cost and third party payment, the regulatory program has also managed to shift the public
debate. The historical focus on caring for an individual patient has been subsumed in discussions of pricing, cost con-
trol, and the merits of using a variety of delivery systems for expanding the third party payments system to an ever-
increasing fraction of the population, legal or not. The collateral damage has been high. People have lost sight of the
important role that involved consumers spending their own money play in controlling system costs and quality.
Infusion therapy—drug treatment generally administered intravenously—was once provided strictly in hospitals. However, clinical developments and emphasis on cost containment have prompted a shift to other settings, including the home. Home infusion requires coordination among providers of drugs, equipment, and skilled nursing care, as needed. GAO was asked to review home infusion coverage policies and practices to help inform Medicare policy. In this report, GAO describes (1) coverage of home infusion therapy components under Medicare fee-for-service (FFS),...
FCRA and market-based cost estimates alike take into
account expected losses from defaults by borrowers.
However, because FCRA estimates use Treasury interest
rates instead of market-based rates for discounting,
FCRA estimates do not incorporate the cost of the market
risk associated with the loans.
Fraud fighters from all parts of the United States met at the National Insurance Fraud
Forum in Washington, D.C., June 5-7, 2000 to set a fraud-fighting agenda for the next
five years. Their accomplishments included identifying key fraud fighting goals in
dealing with legislation and regulation at the state and federal levels and proposing a
list of specific developments on which to focus.
The shift of retirement funding from professionally managed DB plans to
personal savings vehicles implies that investors need to make their own decisions
about how to allocate retirement savings and what products should be used to
generate income in retirement. This shift naturally creates a huge demand for
professional investment advice throughout the investor’s life cycle (in both the
accumulation stage and the retirement stage).
This financial advice must obviously focus on more than simply traditional
Insurance Exchange openings will have a
strong impact on retiree medical plans
The availability of insurance Exchanges coupled
with changes to Medicare will lead many employers
to exit sponsorship of retiree medical programs.
However, many companies will provide a softer
landing for current retirees by offering them
account-based dei ned contribution alternatives that
will make it easier to purchase insurance in the