Managing inter-object dependencies in object-oriented systems is a complex task. Changes of one
object often require dependent objects to change accordingly. Making every object explicitly inform
every dependent object about its state changes intertwines object interfaces and implementations,
thereby hampering system evolution and maintenance. These problems can be overcome by
introducing the notion of Implicit Invocation to object-oriented systems as a decoupling mechanism
The Level 2 interviews gave some insight into why some
countries may have stalled in the progress with adoption of
the integrated approach (Box 2.2).
A central objective of the integrated approach to water
resources management is to ensure increased coordination
in development planning between water managers and the
various development planners. An indicator of the adoption
of the integrated approach is the extent to which water is
included in the various planning documents to be found at
national or federal level.
Donation for research purposes may differ in important ways from donation for treatment
purposes. While both forms of donation seek to benefit others, the contribution that any one
research donor or healthy volunteer makes to the health of any other identifiable person is
exceptionally hard to pin down. A move away from a primarily altruistic model in donation for
research purposes may therefore pose a lesser challenge to solidarity and common values than
such a move in connection with donation for treatment.
This document should be useful for security program managers, technical and functional managers,
network and system administrators, and other information technology (IT) staff members. It provides
them with a structured approach to network security testing. Management personnel who are responsible
for systems can apply the testing procedures and tools discussed in this document to become informed
about the status of the assets under their stewardship. This document can also assist in evaluating
compliance with their organization’s security standards and requirements.
From within the small yet growing body of research focused upon CAM use for pregnancy
[2,5], the majority has examined pregnant women’s use of discrete supplements or treatments
and, despite recommendations [23,24], there has been little exploration of women’s
consultations with CAM practitioners. One exception is a recent longitudinal cohort study
(n=535)  which identified no significant change in this prevalence rate over a 10 year
period compared with non-pregnant women.
Wastes are very process-specific but the key pollutants can be derived from
knowledge of: the process, construction materials, corrosion / erosion mechanisms and
maintenance materials. Waste audits are used to gather information on the source, composition,
quantity and variability of all wastes. Waste prevention typically involves preventing the
arising of waste at source, minimising the arisings and recycling any waste that is generated.
As email marketing continues to mature, and digital communications expand, organizations need to
become even more strategic in email campaign implementation, to
deliver value on subscriber’s terms. To accomplish this goal, email
marketers must exceed the rising expectations of email subscribers
and ISPs. Subscribers demand organizations speak to their unique
interests and communication preferences.
Because of overcrowded inboxes, consumers also seek new, more
efficient tools with which to review emails.
Environmental toxins, including exposure to lead, pesticides, and other chemicals,
unquestionably affect fertility in men and women. Researchers have documented many
examples, the strongest cases involving industrial and occupational exposures. These usually
involve small numbers of people exposed to high levels of contamination.
Cross promotions among media companies, food sellers, and toy companies advance the
corporate goal, as one marketing expert put it, “to establish a situation where kids are exposed to
their brand in as many different places as possible throughout the course of the day or the week,
or almost anywhere they turn in the course of their daily rituals” (Kjos, 2002). Supermarket
shelves are filled with such links, such as Rugrats characters on packages of Kraft Macaroni &
Cheese. Tie-ins like these are designed to lure children into...
Around one third of our visits were to firms for whom financial services is not their
main line of business and sell PPI as a tertiary product. Of these nearly a half had not
properly engaged with their regulatory responsibilities and had in general failed to
meet the standards of TCF and ICOB.
Motor retailers have shown some of the biggest improvements since our earlier
work, for instance, they have been proactive in changing their sales processes to
better align them with TCF objectives.
Young women exposed to pregnancy
experience greater likelihood of childbirth-
related morbidity and mortality, with some
countries experiencing mortality rates among
women aged 15 - 19 that are as high as twice
that of women in their 20s or 30s (WHO,
1989). Physiological under-development
increases the likelihood of prolonged or
obstructed labor, which may lead to ruptured
uterus and death for the mother or fetus
(Network, 1994). Negative pregnancy
outcomes also result in part from poor
prenatal health behavior among young adults,
particularly teenage schoolgirls.
At the same time, however, economists were proposing effluent taxes as a policy that
could both generate incentives to meet ambient quality targets and minimize the costs of doing
Moreover, proponents of effluent fees received a receptive hearing in the political arena.
The Environmental Pollution Panel of the President’s Science Advisory Committee
recommended in 1965 “that careful study be given to tax-like systems in which all polluters
would be subject to ‘effluent charges’ in proportion to their contribution to pollution ….
Often filmmakers will employ point of view shots to place us within the perspective of two
characters – in this case, the heroine and the villain. This final scene from the Silence of the Lambs is
filmed in the conventional style of the horror movie. First we experience the fear and anxiety of the
lead character as we see the serial killer’s lair through her eyes. The narrative tension is created by
our knowledge that the man is the serial killer and so we wait anxiously to see when she will realise
this fact and take action to arrest him....
Holliway and McCutchen (2004) stressed that the coordination of the author, text,
and reader representations “builds on multiple sources of interpersonal, cognitive, and
textual competencies” and may well account for most of the difficulties that children
experience with revision. In an early study of expert versus novice differences in
writers, Sommers (1980) documented that professional writers routinely and
spontaneously revise their texts extensively and globally, making deep structural
The Capital Market Climate Initiative (CMCI) is a UK initiative, bringing together experts from the
financial and public sector to help deliver private climate financing at scale in developing countries by:
identifying deliverable propositions to mobile private capital; developing a base of evidence build
developing country interest and support; and building private sector confidence in the feasibility of the task
ContactYour Agent or Company Representative to ReportYour
Loss: Have ready—the name of your insurance
company , policy number and a phone number and/or
e-mail address where you can be reached. All flood
insurance policies require you to give prompt written
notice of loss. If you get in touch with your agent or
company representative directly , they will advise you
how to file your notice of claim. Otherwise, you must
send a written notice to your insurance company with
your policy number ....
PHI provides a source of insurance in systems with targeted, non-universal access to health care
coverage. It plays a particularly large role in countries with a history of private health coverage and an
absence of universal coverage. For example, in the Netherlands, nearly all of the population without access
to social insurance purchases PHI (about a third of the population), and the majority of the socially insured
rely on PHI for coverage of services not included within social insurance.
One potential benefit of early identification is the ability to plan
for the anticipated further cognitive decline. For example, the
assignment of a sustaining power of attorney can be made at a time
before mental incompetence occurs, obviating more complex
maneuvers to handle an individual’s estate at a later date. The ability to
discuss advance directives with an individual is another potential
Interest in farmland is rising. And, given commodity price volatility, grow-
ing human and environmental pressures, and worries about food security,
this interest will increase, especially in the developing world.
Many countries have suitable land available that is either not cultivated or
produces well below its potential. This was a development challenge even
before the food price rise of 2008. Seventy-five percent of the world’s poor
are rural, and most are engaged in farming.
Migration is the movement of people from one
place to another. As long as Homo sapiens have
existed, members of the species have migrated in
search of food or to escape from disasters or
conflicts. Population movements have been
frequent during every epoch. They have often been
gradual and related to the search for better
livelihoods, lasting for a thousand years – the
Bantu expansion in Africa – or for more
concentrated periods – the few hundred years of
the so-called ‘barbarian’ population movements in
Europe, which peaked from the third to eighth