Integrating gender

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  • The goal of equality between women and men is a basic principle of the United Nations (UN), which is set out in the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations.

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  • Gender is well recognised as a critical consideration for HIV/AIDS organisations. Since the 1990s, HIV/AIDS policy-makers, donors, non-governmental organisations and transnational corporations have adopted gender mainstreaming as the process for integrating gender into development programmes and institutions. There is an increasing body of literature on the successes and challenges of practicing gender

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  • he specific country cultures are not only different in regard to their health systems, but also in integrating gender aspects in research, policy and practice. The very definitions of health, illness and health related social problems are different. If networks focus on gender specific aspects of health and illness, the necessity for transnational communication is evident.

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  • BackGround Balanced, equitable and sustainable development of the fisheries sector must take all social groups into account. However, the role of women in the sector has, for a long time, gone unrecognised and their voice is heard rarely among managers, policy makers and legislators.1 The lack of recognition and representation is not only unfair, but it also leads to an incomplete understanding of how the sector as a whole operates and functions.

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  • Partnerships with donor countries have also been very impor- tant for encouraging gender mainstreaming in the Bank. This is true both at the corporate level, where donor countries have co-financed research, evaluation, analysis, and the development of tools, and at a regional and country level. Local partnerships with donors have, in some instances, been extremely effective in leveraging small contri- butions to support in-country analytical and strategic work.

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  • Despite worldwide evidence of the low levels of female participation in social, educational, economic and political spheres, there is still a tendency to see it as a real problem only in a limited number of countries. Yet, as noted above, the reality is that no country in the world, no matter how advanced, has achieved true gender equality, as measured by comparable decision- making power, equal opportunity for education and advancement, and equal participation and status in all walks of human endeavour.

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  • The country case studies make clear that international partners share some of the blame, particularly because they too often fail to coordinate programs to help promote more integrated, comprehensive health care for women. However, it is equally clear that many of the obstacles are wholly local in nature: National governments and policymakers are often unable or unwilling to initiate or sustain health care programs and reforms that would improve women’s access to services and, by extension, reduce rates of vertical transmission.

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  • While important progress on the MDGs has been made, it has been uneven between and within countries. Gender disparities remain manifested in many sectors with progress differing by region and country. The growing number and diversity of actors, approaches and flows in development cooperation in recent years have also significantly impacted progress on the MDGs and other IADGs.

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  • The health effects of violence against women are serious, far-reaching, and intertwined. Health care providers have the opportunity and the obligation to identify cases of abuse. For many women in developing countries, a visit to a health clinic for reproductive or child health services may be their only contact with the health care system. The health care sector can capitalize on this opportunity by ensuring a supportive and safe environment for clients, helping providers ask about abuse, and helping women receive the care they need.

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  • Training camps of one-day duration on ‘Farmers Training on Economic Dairy Farm Management’ were held between 6 December 2001 and 30 June 2002. The numbers of farmers participating were 545 from Mymensingh, 400 from Khulna-Satkhira, 395 from Sirajgong-Pabna and 396 from Chittagong. The training was completed in 49 batches, with individual batches comprising 30–40 farmers. The farmers were introduced to the project objectives, work plan and expected outcome.

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  • Services to implementing agencies. The limited capacity of implementing agencies to mainstream gender-responsive approach- es sometimes constrains the success of Bank projects and programs. The Bank itself has a limited capacity to provide technical assistance to implementing agencies, but one region has successfully estab- lished technical service facilities that rely on part-time consultants to advise these agencies on integrating gender-responsive approaches into project implementation.

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  • Views on ‘accountability’ need to place greater emphasis on (i) accountability for results (not only expenditure targets or activities undertaken), and (ii) accountability to local partners, including targeted beneficiaries, rather than only to donor ‘audit’ requirements. Related to this point, attitudes about ‘who is in control’ need to give greater appreciation to the importance of local ownership, and the practical ways in which this can be supported.

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  • These are not issues which can be lightly dismissed; however, it is clear that any debate on human dignity needs to separate the various elements of the debate in order to consider whether opposition to cloning stems from concern for human dignity or respect for divine dignity. As well as to determine whether it is designed to protect the individual that may be cloned or the society whose sense of personal and collective identity might be challenged by the concept of sharing the world with cloned individuals.

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  • Population policies were first referenced in the first Five Year Plan (1956-61) that Nepal adopted. However, it was only from the Third Plan (1965-70) onwards that the policies were more extensively elaborated. Until the Eighth Plan, Nepalese population policies focused primarily on family planning programs. An enhanced integrated development approach was adopted in the Eighth (1992-97) and Ninth Plans (1997-2002).

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  • The ILO gender audit has added impetus to the process of integrating gender equality into the ILO by setting in motion an institutional learning mechanism. The challenge now is to rigorously monitor the implementation of its recommendations. The ILO constituents and the UN system are increasingly interested in conducting gender audits in order to accelerate gender mainstreaming within their own organizations. ILO is responding by modifying and revising the audit methodology to meet their specifi c needs.

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  • The Nongynecological Cytology Practice Guideline is not intended for use as or a substitute for a procedure manual for cytology technical protocols. Readers may use references cited at the end of this Guideline, or other sources, for information such as preparation methodology or staining formulations. The process of creating a guideline represents consensus building within a specialty with subsequent endorsement by national professional organizations.

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  • It is entirely dependent on the type of disaster, integrity of supply chains, and acuity of residents. Stockpiled supplies include food, water, generator fuel, and medical supplies such as medications, vaccines, oxygen, gloves, masks, and disinfectant. Often used as an extreme example, Avian Influenza is continuing its march across the globe, although it has yet to be definitively identified as reaching the United States. Great effort and extensive resources have been spent in preparing ourselves for this likelihood of Avian Influenza, and the possibility of Pandemic Influenza.

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  • Training. Three actions are planned. First, gender and develop- ment materials will be integrated into newly planned human resources integrative courses and existing World Bank Institute core courses. Several World Bank Institute courses on health, population, and nutrition have done an excellent job of integrating gender issues into their content, and can serve as good practice examples for core courses in other sectors. Developing gender-related course content will be the joint responsibility of the World Bank Institute and the Gender and Development Board.

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  • A mainstreaming approach to gender and development, in which most operational staff bear some responsibility for integrating gender-responsive actions into their work, requires a clear under- standing of the individual responsibilities of staff occupying differ- ent positions. The gender mainstreaming responsibilities of key positions in the organization are shown in Table 2.1.

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  • Follow-up action on the gender audit’s recommendations is crucial and this is where the ownership of the audit by the Work Unit/Offi ce is important in advocating, intervening and scaling up action. Often a gender audit works as an entry point for discussing wider substantive and operational concerns.

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