The study of electromagnetic radiation (EM) can be divided into two distinct areas: full
solution of Maxwell's Equations relevant to the specific boundary conditions in a
special general case and into application of EM radiation that results in modern life
e.g. medicine, telecommunication, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) etc. The
reader should have a specific scientific background and must be familiar with the
fundamental ideas of EM theory for the first area. Basic understanding of applying the
radiation techniques in modern life is needed for the second.
The Series ‘Topics in Molecular Organization and Engineering’ was initiated by
the Symposium ‘Molecules in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology’, which was held
in Paris in 1986. Appropriately dedicated to Professor Raymond Daudel, the
symposium was both broad in its scope and penetrating in its detail. The sections
of the symposium were: 1. The Concept of a Molecule; 2. Statics and Dynamics
of Isolated Molecules; 3. Molecular Interactions, Aggregates and Materials; 4.
Molecules in the Biological Sciences, and 5. Molecules in Neurobiology and So-
With its origins in the theories of continuous distributions of dislocations and
of metal plasticity, inhomogeneity theory is a rich and vibrant field of research.
The recognition of the important role played by configurational or material
forces in phenomena such as growth and remodelling is perhaps its greatest
present-day impetus. While some excellent comprehensive works approaching
the subject from different angles have been published, the objective of
this monograph is to present a point of view that emphasizes the differentialgeometric
aspects of inhomogeneity theory.
INTRODUCTION: SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION AT THE HIGH-ENERGY FRONTIER
The major high-energy physics (HEP) experiments of the next twenty years will break new ground in our understanding of the fundamental interactions, structures and symmetries that govern the nature of matter and space-time. Among the principal goals are to ﬁnd the mechanism responsible for mass in the universe, and the ‘Higgs’ particles associated with mass generation, as well as the fundamental mechanism that led to the predominance of matter over antimatter in the observable cosmos.
Amorphous materials have attracted much attention in the last two decades. The
first reason for this is their potential industrial applications as suitable materials for
fabricating devices, and the second reason is the lack of understanding of many
properties of these materials, which are very different from those of crystalline
materials. Some of their properties are different even from one sample to another
of the same material.
A speciﬁc example in which the theory developed here is quite crucial is
the analysis of locomotion for the snakeboard, which we study in some detail
in Section 8.4. The snakeboard is a modiﬁed version of a skateboard in which
locomotion is achieved by using a coupling of the nonholonomic constraints with
the symmetry properties of the system. For that system, traditional analysis of
the complete dynamics of the system does not readily explain the mechanism of
We study a simple three-lane cellular automaton, based upon the well known NagelSchreckenberg model, and examine the effect of slow cars in such a system. We point out the important parameters defining the shape of the fundamental digram for the three-lane model and compare it to that of a two-lane one, showing the new mode of interactions between lanes. It is possible to reduce the influence of slow cars by choosing an adequate version of the symmetry with respect to lanes.