The use of copper and its alloys by humans goes back thousands of years. Probably
copper is the most ancient metal extracted and processed by mankind. With good
strength and ductility, ease of processing and good availability, copper has been for
millennia an excellent material for creating objects, jewelry and tools of daily use or
components with high technological content.
The interaction of xenon with copper⁄6-hydroxydopa (2,4,5-trihydroxy-phenethylamine) quinone (TPQ) amine oxidases from the plant pulses lentil
(Lens esculenta) and pea (Pisum sativum) (seedlings), the perennial Mediter-ranean shrub Euphorbia characias(latex), and the mammals cattle (serum)
and pigs (kidney), were investigated by NMR and optical spectroscopy of
the aqueous solutions of the enzymes.
We studied the interaction of several metal ions with the
copper chaperone fromEnterococcus hirae(EhCopZ). We
show that the stoichiometry of the protein–metal complex
varies with the experimental conditions used. At high con-centration of the protein in a noncoordinatingbuffer, a
dimer, (EhCopZ)2–metal, was formed. The presence of a
potentially coordinatingmolecule L in the solution leads to
the formation of a monomeric ternary complex, EhCopZ–
Cu–L, where L can be a buffer or a coordinatingmole-cule (glutathione, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine). ...
The interaction between the human copper(I) chaperone, HAH1, and one
of its two physiological partners, the Menkes disease protein (ATP7A), was
investigated in solution using heteronuclear NMR. The study was carried
out through titrations involving HAH1 and either the second or the fifth
soluble domains of ATP7A (MNK2 and MNK5, respectively), in the pres-ence of copper(I). The copper-transfer properties of MNK2 and MNK5
are similar, and differ significantly from those previously observed for the
yeast homologous system. ...
The selection of materials for outdoor sculpture commissioned
today may range from traditional bronze, granite or copper to ephem-
eral materials like plastics, plants and electronic equipment. Over
time these materials interact with each other and their environment,
leading to inevitable deterioration. Metals corrode, plastics discolor
or become brittle, painted surfaces chip and fade. In addition, ele-
ments in the environment—water, chemical pollutants, extreme
temperatures and ultraviolet light—accelerate these processes of
In yeast, copper delivery to the trans-Golgi network involves interactions
between the metallo-chaperone Atx1 and the N-terminus of Ccc2, the
P-type ATPase responsible for copper transport acrosstrans-Golgi network
membranes. Disruption of the Atx1–Ccc2 route leads to cell growth arrest
in a copper-and-iron-limited medium, a phenotype allowing complementa-tion studies.
(BQ) In this study, the effect of machining parameters of EDM process including on-time, current, voltage, the engaging
time between workpiece and electrode, and pre-EDM roughing on electrode wear were experimentally investigated. Main effects of factors and interactions were considered in this paper and regression equation was derived. A L50 (21 × 511) Taguchi’s standard orthogonal array was employed as experimental design. Copper was used as electrode to machine the hot work tool steel 1.2714, which is widely used to make forging dies and mandrels.