The Immune Response
Innate Immunity As they have co-evolved with microbes, higher organisms have developed mechanisms for recognizing and responding to microorganisms. Many of these mechanisms, referred to together as innate immunity, are evolutionarily ancient, having been conserved from insects to humans. In general, innate immune mechanisms exploit molecular patterns found specifically in pathogenic microorganisms. These "pathogen signatures" are recognized by host molecules that either directly interfere with the pathogen or initiate a response that does so.
In 1994, a group of developers wrote a book called Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object
Oriented Software (Boston: Addison-Wesley , 1994),
wherein they explored the pros and cons of
object-oriented software engineering. This group of developers, commonly referred to as “The Gang
of Four” or “GoF ,” identified common software engineering problems and how object-oriented
programming (OOP) could be used to solve those problems. The book refers to these solutions as
design patterns, some of which can be seen in Figure 1.1....
Near-term spoken language systems will likely be limited in their interactive capabilities. To design them, we shall need to model how the presence or absence of speaker interaction influences spoken discourse patterns in different types of tasks. In this research, a comprehensive examination is provided of the discourse structure and performance efficiency of both interactive and noninteractive spontaneous speech in a seriated assembly task.
Kernel based methods dominate the current trend for various relation extraction tasks including protein-protein interaction (PPI) extraction. PPI information is critical in understanding biological processes. Despite considerable efforts, previously reported PPI extraction results show that none of the approaches already known in the literature is consistently better than other approaches when evaluated on different benchmark PPI corpora.
We present a web tool that allows users to explore news stories concerning the 2012 US Presidential Elections via an interactive interface. The tool is based on concepts of “narrative analysis”, where the key actors of a narration are identiﬁed, along with their relations, in what are sometimes called “semantic triplets” (one example of a triplet of this kind is “Romney Criticised Obama”).
This paper proposes the use of "patternbased" context-free grammars as a basis for building machine translation (MT) systems, which are now being adopted as personal tools by a broad range of users in the cyberspace society. We discuss major requirements for such tools, including easy customization for diverse domains, the efficiency of the translation algorithm, and scalability (incremental improvement in translation quality through user interaction), and describe how our approach meets these requirements. ...
In a well-structured Lexica] Data B a s e , a number of relations among lexica] entries can he interactively evidenced. The present article examines hyponymy, as an example of paradigmatic relation, and "restriction" relation, as a syntagmatic relation. The theoretical results of their implementation are illustrated.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Litt's drug eruption reference manual including drug interactions" presents the following contents: Drugs responsible for common reaction patterns, drugs responsible for common reaction patterns, alphabetical index of drug eruptions A–Z
This is a practical book that tells you how to write C# programs using some of the most common design patterns. It also serves as a quick
introduction to programming in the new C# language. The pattern discussions are structured as a series of short chapters, each describing a
design pattern and giving one or more complete working, visual example programs that use that pattern. Each chapter also includes UML diagrams
illustrating how the classes interact.
In the spring of 2006, I had the privilege of taking a very early look at what would eventually
become ASP.NET MVC. Scott Guthrie of Microsoft arranged a personal demo just for me backstage at the DevConnections conference in balmy Nice, France. At the time, I had just started playing with ASP.NET Web Forms and the Model-View-Presenter (MVP) pattern.
to see the usual great set of designers to automatically define models, controllers,
and views. Instead, I was surprised to see a brand-new application model being
worked out on top of the same ASP.NET runtime.
Diversity of plant form and life history and their distribution onto different habitats suggest
that plant functions should underlie this diversity, providing tools to successfully and differentially
thrive in every habitat. The knowledge of these functions is then the key to understand
community and ecosystem structure and functioning, something that attracted the
interest and effort of many plant ecologists trying to establish patterns of adaptive specialization
The term “design patterns” sounds a bit formal to the uninitiated and
can be somewhat off-putting when you first encounter it. But, in fact, design
patterns are just convenient ways of reusing object-oriented code between
projects and between programmers. The idea behind design patterns is
simple-- write down and catalog common interactions between objects that
programmers have frequently found useful.
More than ten years ago, two of us (AGH and DGR) were lucky enough to edit a
previous symposium of the British Ecological Society (BES) – Aquatic Ecology: Scale,
Pattern and Process (Giller, Hildrew & Raffaelli, 1994). In the Introduction to that
volume, we pointed out that the BES had not devoted a single previous symposium
to aquatic ecosystems.
The launch of the iPhone software development kit (SDK) was a big deal for developers,
designers, and consumers alike. Developers and designers were able to access a previously
closed platform and distribution channel. Consumers were excited to explore an
endless stream of new applications created by passionate independent developers and
It has been a decade since book-length writing about law and the Internet began
in earnest. Ethan Katsh’s wonderful book Law in a Digital World (1995) is
just over a decade old, and anticipated the flood. My first book, Code and Other
Laws of Cyberspace (1999), is just under.
Most of these early books had a common character. We were all trying first to
make the obscure understandable, and second, to draw lessons from the understood
about how law and technology needed to interact.
rom the creators of Yahoo!'s Design Pattern Library, Designing Social Interfaces provides you with more than 100 patterns, principles, and best practices, along with salient advice for many of the common challenges you'll face when starting a social website. Designing sites that foster user interaction and community-building is a valuable skill for web developers and designers today, but it's not that easy to understand the nuances of the social web. Now you have help.
Want to learn how to create great user experiences on today's Web? In this book, UI experts Bill Scott and Theresa Neil present more than 75 design patterns for building web interfaces that provide rich interaction. Distilled from the authors' years of experience at Sabre, Yahoo!, and Netflix, these best practices are grouped into six key principles to help you take advantage of the web technologies available today. With an entire section devoted to each design principle, Designing Web
Humanoid robots are developed to use the infrastructures designed for humans, to ease the interactions with humans, and to help the integrations into human societies. The developments of humanoid robots proceed from building individual robots to establishing societies of robots working alongside with humans. This book addresses the problems of constructing a humanoid body and mind from generating walk patterns and balance maintenance to encoding and specifying humanoid motions and the control of eye and head movements for focusing attention on moving objects....
CD91 plays an important role in the scavenging of apoptotic material, pos-sibly through binding to soluble pattern-recognition molecules. In this
study, we investigated the interaction of CD91 with mannan-binding lectin
(MBL), ficolins and lung surfactant proteins. Both MBL and L-ficolin were
found to bind CD91. The MBL–CD91 interaction was time- and concentra-tion-dependent and could be inhibited by known ligands of CD91.