Interaction phenomena

Xem 1-20 trên 31 kết quả Interaction phenomena
  • The inner magnetosphere is an important region of space plasma because it is one of the “kitchens” for space weather effects. The scientific understanding of this region is important for predicting the interaction between space environmental conditions and human activities. The inner magnetospheric plasma is a unique composition of different plasma particles and waves. It covers a huge plasma energy range with spatial and time variations of many orders of magnitude.

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  • The manual design of grammars for accurate natural language analysis is an iterative process; while modelling decisions usually determine parser behaviour, evidence from analysing more or different input can suggest unforeseen regularities, which leads to a reformulation of rules, or even to a different model of previously analysed phenomena.

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  • Science progresses by a symbiotic interaction between theory and experiment: theory is used to interpret experimental results and may suggest new experiments; experiment helps to test theoretical predictions and may lead to improved theories. Theoretical Chemistry (including Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics) provides the concep- tual and technical background and apparatus for the rationalisation of phenomena in the chemical sciences. It is, therefore, a wide ranging subject, reflecting the diversity of molecular and related species and processes arising in chemical systems.

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  • During the past two decades, reductionist biological science has generated new empirical data on the molecular foundations of biological structure and function at an accelerating rate. The list of organisms whose complete genomes have been sequenced is growing by the week. Annotations of these sequences are becoming more comprehensive, and databases of protein structure are growing at impressive, indeed formerly unimaginable rates.

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  • This volume, based on the proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Unsteady Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines and Propellers aims at promoting an international exchange of current research in unsteady flow phenomena in turbomachines and propellers.

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  • All the phenomena of nature are characterized by motion; this is an essential property of matter, having infinity of aspects. For instance, the motion can be mechanical, physical, chemical and biological; there correspond various sciences of nature. Among them, mechanics studies the objective laws of the mechanical motion of material bodies, the simplest form of motion of matter; we will deal with such a study in what follows. The scientific study of matter has put in evidence its existence in the form of physical systems.

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  • In many respects, the science of materials has only fully utilized two of its three fundamental tools —the variables of temperature and chemical composition. Pressure, the third fundamental variable altering materials, is in many ways the most remarkable, as it spans some 60 orders of magnitude in the universe.

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  • Susan L.Lindquist*† and Steven Henikoff‡ *Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142; and ‡The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 Over the past half-century, the central dogma, in which DNA makes RNA makes protein, has dominated thinking in biology, with continuing refinements in understanding of DNA inheritance, gene expression, and macromolecular interactions. However, we have also witnessed the elucidation of epigenetic phenomena that violate conventional notions of inheritance.

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  • With its origins in the theories of continuous distributions of dislocations and of metal plasticity, inhomogeneity theory is a rich and vibrant field of research. The recognition of the important role played by configurational or material forces in phenomena such as growth and remodelling is perhaps its greatest present-day impetus. While some excellent comprehensive works approaching the subject from different angles have been published, the objective of this monograph is to present a point of view that emphasizes the differentialgeometric aspects of inhomogeneity theory.

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  • Membranes have proteins that mediate and regulate the transport of metabolites, macromolecules, and ions. Hormones and many other biological signal molecules and regulatory agents exert their effects via interactions with membranes. Photosynthesis, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation, muscle contraction, and electrical activity all depend on membranes and membrane proteins. What are the properties and characteristics of biological membranes that account for their broad influence on cellular processes and transport?

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  • The impact of macroeconomics on daily life is less tangible than that of microeconomics. Everyone has to deal with rising supermarket prices, fluctuations in the labor market, and other microeconomic problems. Only a handful of policymakers and government officials really need to worry about fiscal and monetary policy, or about a country’s overall competitiveness.

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  • The passive components used in electronic circuits all make use of one or more of the three fundamental phenomena of resistance, capacitance and inductance. Some components depend for their operation on the interaction between one of these electrical properties and a mechanical property, e.g. crystals used as frequency standards, piezo-electric sounders, etc. The following sections look at components particularly in the light of their suitability for use at RFs, and at how they can be inter-connected for various purposes....

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  • en the space limitations, the added material supplements, expands, and reinforces the ana-lytical methods that were, and continue to be, the main focus of this book. The analytical methods are the foundation of electromagnetics and provide understanding and physical interpretation of electromagnetic phenomena and interactions. Although numerical and computational methods have, especially in the last four decades, played a key role in the solution of complex elec-tromagnetic problems, they are highly dependent on fundamental principles.

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  • Plant and animal species have been co-evolving synergically ever since they began to occupy the different environments found around the world. These two types of organisms have developed relationships of mutual dependence at a number of different levels, in particular those related to feeding behavior. The study of herbivore interactions has been especially relevant to the scientific community.

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  • Putting the quantum into magnetism might, at first sight, seem like stating the obvious; the exchange interactions leading to collective magnetic behavior are, after all, a pure quantum effect. Yet, for many phenomena in magnetism this underlying quantum nature may be safely ignored at least on the qualitative level. The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects play a dominant role and have to be accounted for in detail has, over the last decades, evolved to be a field of very active research....

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  • We believe that two fundamental developments afforded researchers a third chance to consolidate the field of neuroaesthet- ics around the turn of the millennium. First, the notion of a single special mechanism underlying aesthetic experiences has been dropped in favor of the view that aesthetic appreciation and re- lated phenomena rely on several general mechanisms, including processes of perception, memory, attention, decision-making, and reward and emotion (Chatterjee, 2004a; Leder, Belke, Oeberst, & Augustin, 2004).

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  • The city is a complex amalgamation of numerous phenomena, based on a multiplicity of dynamic interactions. Due to an increase in density, an almost continuous cooperation between the inhabitants occurs often resulting in socio-economic improvement. Considering the constant development of living standards – infrastructure, production and consumption – the city and urbanization should generally be regarded as something positive without thereby disguising problems of social inequality and violence.

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  • At present, problems of optimization of the interaction between nature and human society can be solved only by the joint efforts of a wide range of specialists. The elaboration and realization of plans of socio-economic development for individual countries and regions should be based on the principles of preservation of balance in the biosphere, biogeocenoses, landscapes and other natural complexes, and on the principles of rational natural resources management.

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  • Volume 3 of the book series Biomathematical and Biomechanical Modeling of the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems aims at presenting major sets of signaling receptors mainly located at the plasma membrane, 1 in a modeling framework rather than biological perspective. Collecting signaling effectors, their main interactions, and major properties are the first tasks required for any modeling of cell signaling processes. The major objective is to comprehend the complexity of natural phenomena to model these events. In other words, to yield the maximal amount of known information (i.e.

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  • Self-organization and emergent order are due in part to rich interactions between agents in a CAS. These phenomena are explained by expressing the sum of the interactions of a CAS as a gestalt connectivity with each agent working in alignment with other agents. It is this connectivity that we believe can be manifested through teamwork and collaboration. We have all seen that when people work together leveraging complementary individual strengths the results can be exceptional. But getting people to work this way can be a challenge and it cannot happen by mandate.

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