Interest rate policy

Xem 1-20 trên 163 kết quả Interest rate policy
  • I came to view the process by which a central bank manages the interbank rate in a different light a few years ago in a paper on the zero bound on interest rate policy. 8 Obviously, at the zero bound it is no longer possible for a central bank to operate on the interest opportunity cost spread. The spread is zero. Nevertheless, a central bank still may be said to manage the interbank rate when it is zero. Thus, something other than open market operations and the interest opportunity cost spread must matter for the implementation of interest rate policy. Irving...

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  • The operational procedures of the Bank of Greece underwent major changes during the 1990s. These shifts in operational strategy made interest rates the main tool of monetary policy for the first time in Greece. This paper examines the effects of changes in the bank’s operational interest rates on market interest rates at eight maturities and for different operational regimes. A major feature of our study is the application of the event study methodology used in finance, which has not been employed in any previous study on this subject.

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  • Chapter 33 - Interest rates and monetary policy. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss how the equilibrium interest rate is determined in the market for money, list and explain the goals and tools of monetary policy, describe the Federal funds rate and how the Fed directly influences it, identify the mechanisms by which monetary policy affects GDP and the price level, explain the effectiveness of monetary policy and its shortcomings.

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  • After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss how the equilibrium interest rate is determined in the market for money, list and explain the goals and tools of monetary policy, describe the Federal funds rate and how the Fed directly influences it, identify the mechanisms by which monetary policy affects GDP and the price level, explain the effectiveness of monetary policy and its shortcomings.

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  • Recent experience illustrates this point. Consider the fact that the Fed cut interest rates sharply in response to two of the most serious financial crises in recent years: the October 1987 stock market break and the turmoil following the Russian default in 1998. Arguably, in retrospect, interest rate policy remained too easy for too long in both cases.

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  • Clearly, interest rate policy implemented by the Fed’s current operating procedures could not survive in this case. If the Fed persisted in implementing interest rate policy with its current procedures, the Fed would continually sell securities to withdraw reserves and currency. Reserves, for example, would be withdrawn to keep their marginal narrow liquidity services yield from falling below the interest opportunity cost represented by the federal funds rate target.

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  • The structure of the paper is as follows. Section 2 discusses the literature on both measuring competition and the bank interest rate pass-through. Section 3 describes the Boone indicator of competition and Section 4 the employed interest rate pass-through model of the error-correction type and the applied panel unit root and cointegration tests. Section 5 presents the various data sets used. The results on the various tests and estimates of the spread model and the error correction model equations are shown in Section 6. Finally, Section 7 summarises and concludes....

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  • Governments everywhere responded to the panic by pumping more equity into banks, greatly expanding the ambit of their deposit insurance, and opening up various central bank discount windows for distress borrowers. This gigantic effort seems to have reduced counterparty party risk, the fear of bank failure, in interbank trading. Figure 1 shows the one- month LIBOR rate coming down close to the Fed funds rate, now near zero, by mid 2009.

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  • The plan of the paper is as follows. The next section presents the new euro area harmonizeddataonbank interestratesandsomeevidenceoncrosscountrydispersion.The third section reports two econometric exercises measuring crosscountry similarities; the Italiancase isanalyzedasbenchmarkof integration,comparing theeuroarea intercountry variation with the intracountry variation of Italian regions. The fourth section provides regressionscarriedoutusingnationaldeterminantsofdifferences inbank interestrates.

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  • Paying a market rate of interest on reserves could create cash flow problems for a central bank. One problem is that interest on reserves would be paid on a daily basis, but interest earnings would not accrue on a daily basis. Interest on short-term securities is paid on a discount basis rather than on a daily basis and interest on longer term securities is paid at infrequent intervals.

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  • The international consequences of zero-interest-rate policies are also negative. With interbank markets in the U.S. and Europe congested, forward foreign exchange markets become more difficult to organize. Without forward cover, exporters and importers find it more difficult to secure normal letters of credit. In the financial panic of 2008, foreign trade imploded much more than domestic trade. In addition, the Fed’s zero interest rate strategy inevitably weakens the dollar in the foreign exchanges.

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  • The interest-on-reserves regime has four attractive features. First, the regime would make full use of two monetary policy instruments—open market operations and interest on reserves—to enable a central bank to simultaneously pursue interest rate policy and an independent objective for aggregate bank reserves. That would potentially improve on the Fed’s current operating procedures that obligate bank reserves to support interest rate policy.

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  • We find that for operational forms of policy rules, ie rules that do not depend on contemporaneous values of endogenous aggregate variables, many interest-rate rules do not exhibit robust stability. We consider a variety of interest-rate rules, including instrument rules, optimal reaction functions under discretion or commitment, and rules that approximate optimal policy under commitment.

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  • Chapter 13 - An introduction to interest rate determination and forecasting. After completing this unit, you should be able to: Explain the reasons for a change in the RBA’s interest rate policy, describe how changes in interest rates affect the rest of the economy, outline the possible shapes of a yield curve, explain the theories that describe how a yield curve obtains its shape.

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  • As California local agencies are becoming involved in the interest rate swap market, knowledge of the basics of pric ing swaps may assist issuers to better understand initial, mark-to-market, and termination costs associated with their swap programs. This report is intended to provide treasury managers and staff with a basic overview of swap math and related pric ing conventions.

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  • Open market operations Affect the quantity of reserves and the monetary base Changes in borrowed reserves Affect the monetary base Changes in reserve requirements Affect the money multiplier Federal funds rate—the interest rate on overnight loans of reserves from one bank to another Primary indicator of the stance of monetary policy

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  • The federal funds market also functions as the core of a more extensive overnight market for credit free of reserve requirements and interest rate controls. Nonbank depositors supply funds to the overnight market through repurchase agreements (RPs) with their banks. Under an overnight repurchase agreement, a depositor lends funds to a bank by purchasing a security, which the bank repurchases the next day at a price agreed to in advance. In 1991, overnight RPs accounted for about 25 percent of overnight borrowings by large commercial banks.

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  • The emphasis that firms in all three sectors are placing on risk management and risk measurement issues is encouraging. This should result in stronger and better managed firms. The ability to improve risk quantification can provide important tools for assessing risk/return trade-offs and encourage sound risk management practices. However, firms need to understand the limitations of such methodologies and should supplement these where necessary, for example through stress testing.

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  • In the past, the government often tried to ensure that we pay "a fair rate" of interest by implementing usury ceilings or limits on the rates that lenders can charge. During the 1980s there was a general trend toward eliminating or raising these limits as policy-makers reacted to the high inflation and record interest rates of the late 1970s. During the early 1990s, however, the trend reversed as some suggested that caps should be placed on credit card rates, which remained at historically high levels while other key interest rates declined significantly.

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  • Four years after the launch of the euro in January 1999 and while the European Central Bank (ECB) plans a review about its monetary policy strategy, it seems interesting to study the link between monetary policy, the long-term perception of ináation and long-term interest rates. In the European case, it is possible to use the German term structure as a benchmark.

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