We report unambiguous proof of the stability of a carbinol intermediate in
the case of P450 metabolism of an N-methylated natural cyclo-peptide,
namely tentoxin. Under mild acidic or neutral conditions, the lifetime of
carbinol-amide is long enough to be fully characterized.
A representative model of mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism was broken
down into its extremal independent currents and compared with experimen-tal data obtained from liver mitochondria incubated with pyruvate as a
substrate but in the absence of added adenosine diphosphate.
Obesity is a central feature of the metabolic syndrome and is associated
with increased risk for insulin resistance and type II diabetes. Here, we
investigated the contribution of human apoliprotein E3 and mouse apoli-protein E to the development of diet-induced obesity in response to
western-type diet. Our data show that apolipoprotein E contributes to the
development of obesity and other related metabolic disorders, and that
human apolipoprotein E3 is more potent than mouse apolipoprotein E in
promoting obesity in response to western-type diet. ...
In this chapter you will know that it is a way that some organism can use acetyl-CoA to synthesize carbohydrates. Know why organisms without this pathway can not do this. Know where malate synthase and isocitrate lyase by-pass the decarboxylation steps of TCA. Be able to recognize the intermediates of the glyoxlate cycle and know where they fit into the TCA cycle and where they feed into gluconeogenesis,...
There is a tightly regulated interaction, which is well-conserved in
evolution, between the metabolic and immune systems that is deranged in
states of over- or under-nutrition. Obesity, an energy-rich condition, is
characterized by the activation of an inflammatory process in metaboli-cally active sites such as adipose tissue, liver and immune cells.
Tham khảo luận văn - đề án 'báo cáo khoa học: energetic and metabolic transient response of saccharomyces cerevisiae to benzoic acid', luận văn - báo cáo, báo cáo khoa học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
The biological changes underlying the transition process from gingival health to early
inflammatory changes involve local increase in vascular permeability, edema and the
recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) (Delima and Van
Dyke 2003). Acquired immune response becomes involved once antigen-presenting cells
interact with immunocompetent cells, such as T and B lymphocytes, leading to the
expansion of antibody-secreting plasma cells and the development of the chronic lesion
(Gemmell and Seymour 2004).
This is now the third edition of a textbook the first edition of
which was conceived and published back in 1992. In this edition,
important changes have been introduced to bring the style of
the book more up to date under the guidance of Blackwell
Publishing Ltd. Their professionalism, management skills and
hard work has helped us to produce this new and exciting edition.
The presence of nontraded goods in our model increases the relative volatility of nominal
and real exchange rates relative to the volatility in the model without nontraded goods.
An important aspect of the behavior of exchange rates in our model with nontraded goods
hinges on the agent's inability to optimally share the risk associated with country-speci¯c
shocks to productivity in the nontraded goods sector. In response to a (persistent) positive
shock to productivity in this sector, agents wish to consume and invest more.
The progression from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to type 2 diabetes involves intermediate stages of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), also known as prediabetes. The pathophysiology underlying the development of these glucose metabolic alterations is multifactorial, leading to an alteration in the balance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Our knowledge of the molecular basis of the signaling pathways mediating the various physiologic effects of insulin is steadily advancing....
Liver metabolism is inﬂuenced by hormones and nutrients. Amino acids such as glutamine or leucine induce an anabolic response, which resembles that of insulin in muscle and adipose tissue. In this work, the signalling pathways and the eﬀects of insulin were compared to those of glutamine and leucine in isolated hepatocytes from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
GlutathioneS-transferases (GSTs) catalyze the conjugation of glutathione
to hydrophobic compounds, contributing to the metabolism of toxic
chemicals. In this study, we show that two naturally occurring tau GSTs
(GSTUs) exhibit distinctive kinetic parameters towards 1-chloro-2,4-dini-trobenzene (CDNB), although they differ only in three amino acids
(Arg89, Glu117 and Ile172 in GSTU1 are replaced by Pro89, Lys117 and
Val172 in GSTU2).
We monitored a continuous culture of the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae
by membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. This technique allows very rapid
simultaneous measurements (one point every 12 s) of several dissolved
gases. During our experiment, the culture exhibited a multioscillatory mode
in which the dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide records displayed period-icities of 13 h, 36 min and 4 min.
Deciphering the laws that govern metabolic responses of complex systems
is essential to understand physiological functioning, pathological conditions
and the outcome of experimental manipulations of intact cells. To this aim,
a theoretical and experimental sensitivity analysis, called modular meta-bolic control analysis (MMCA), was proposed.
2-Amino-5-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde is an unstable
intermediate in the meta-cleavage pathway of 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid inBordetellasp. strain 10d.In vitro,
this compound is nonenzymatically converted to 2,5-pyrid-inedicarboxylic acid. Crude extracts of strain 10d grown on
4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid converted 2-amino-5-car-boxymuconic 6-semialdehyde formed from 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid by the first enzyme in the pathway,
4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoate 2,3-dioxygenase, to a yellow
compound (emax¼375 nm).
We have defined thein vivo andin vitro metabolic fate of internalized chol-era toxin (CT) in the endosomal apparatus of rat liver. In vivo, CT was
internalized and accumulated in endosomes where it underwent degrada-tion in a pH-dependent manner. In vitro proteolysis of CT using an endo-somal lysate required an acidic pH and was sensitive to pepstatin A, an
inhibitor of aspartic acid proteases.
The in vitro Entamoeba histolytica pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
(EhPFOR) kinetic properties and the effect of oxidative stress on glycolytic
pathway enzymes and fluxes in live trophozoites were evaluated.EhPFOR
showed a strong preference for pyruvate as substrate over other oxoacids.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a plethora of important biological
processes, from embryonic development to homeostasis in adult tissues.
Recently, miRNAs have emerged as a class of epigenetic regulators of
metabolism and energy homeostasis.
The metabolic pathways leading froml-[2-13
C]aspartic acid, [2-13
C]methionine to vitamin B12were investigated, focusing on
the biosynthetic pathways leading to the aminopropanol moiety of vita-min B12and on the role of the Shemin pathway leading tod-aminolevulinic
acid (a biosynthetic intermediate of tetrapyrrole), by means of feeding
experiments with Propionibacterium shermaniiin combination with
A pathway intermediate is said to be ‘channeled’ when an intermediate just
made in a pathway has a higher probability of being a substrate for the
next pathway enzyme compared with a molecule of the same species from
the aqueous cytoplasm. Channeling is an important phenomenon because
it might play a significant role in the regulation of metabolism.