Chapter 15 provides knowledge of international marketing channels. What you should learn from chapter 15: The variety of distribution channels and how they affect cost and efficiency in marketing, the Japanese distribution structure and what it means to Japanese customers and to competing importers of goods, How distribution patterns affect the various aspects of international marketing,...
In the EU, investment funds can be broadly categorised as UCITS (undertakings for collective
investment in transferable securities) and non-UCITS (or non-harmonised) funds.
funds are those that comply with harmonised rules as laid down in the UCITS Directive
(85/611/EEC) and are authorised for sale to the retail market.
Non-harmonised funds (hereafter referred to collectively as alternative investment funds, or
AIF) do not form a homogenous class of investment fund.
AIF invest in a wide variety of
asset types and employ very different investment strategies.
Chapter 14 - Doing business in advanced economies. The main goals of this chapter are to: Outline the main characteristics of advanced economies, establish the relationship between the private sector and government sector in advanced economies, outline the size and structure of the import market in advanced economies,...
Risk is an important
aspect of any business
operation. Without taking
business risks, growth and
profi t would be almost
impossible. It permeates all
of the fundamental business
challenges companies face,
from recruiting the best
people to managing the
business’ fi nance. However,
the best companies are not
those that avoid risk, but
rather those that understand
and control the risks they are
The survey was completed in July & August 2006 and is building on similar
surveys conducted in 2001 and 2003.
In 2006, we organised the survey as a joint initiative with the Czech Institute
of Internal Auditors (ČIIA).
Our objective is to provide an independent forum to report on key trends, and
emerging issues regarding many aspects of the Internal Audit (“IA”) function
in various industry segments operating in the Czech Republic.
We have defined and described different types of PMO that exist across various organisations, the
type of activity undertaken by these PMOs and the degree of influence they can have on key aspects
of project, programme and portfolio management.
To conclude, we would like to reinforce the fact that “Establishing a PMO is not a simple solution to
a complex problem”. Having a PMO does not, by itself, increase project success.
Chapter 18 decribes international aspects of financial management. In this chapter you will understand how exchange rates are quoted and what they mean, know the difference between spot and forward rates, understand purchasing power parity and interest rate parity and the implications for changes in exchange rates, understand the types of exchange rate risk and how they can be managed, understand the impact of political risk on international business investing.
Equally important, negotiators should focus early on obtaining a North Korean commitment that it will
halt illicit procurements from abroad for its nuclear programs and end the proliferation of its nuclear
technology. The latter is especially important for negotiations to establish in a verifiable manner.
While waiting for negotiations to bear fruit, the United States and its allies will face two interconnected
challenges. They must slow down North Korea’s centrifuge program, or at least make progress more
costly and visible to the international community.
Developing countries’ markets depend extensively (technically and financially) on
international services. Reasons for this include (among others) structural, financial and
technical constraints, including the small size of markets, under-capitalization of
insurance companies and insufficient experience and know-how. Usually, insurance
industries there also have a shortage of skilled personnel.
As a matter of fact in some countries, mainly in India, groundwater development is
much more important than surface water irrigation (Mukherji et al. 2009).
While rainfed crops depend only on meteorological conditions, irrigated crops
depend both on rain regimes and water supply. The combination of these regimes
and the interdependencies between international commodity markets and domestic
production create opportunities to ensure that water is allocated to the most valuable
Empirical evidence regarding international relative prices at the consumer level suggests that
arbitrage in international markets is not rapid and that these markets are highly segmented.
In fact, even markets for traded goods appear to be highly segmented internationally: In the
data, both real exchange rate movements and deviations from the law of one price for traded
goods are large and persistent.
Sales promotions can be seen as a service that provides encouragement to purchase a product or service by changing
the perceived value-for-money equation. In the past decade manufacturers and retailers have been gradually switching
from above the line mass media advertising to a variety of below the line sales promotions. Although sales promotions
take up a very large share of total marketing expenditure, they remain an area which has less strategic consideration or
attention than any other aspect of the promotion mix, especially in the international market arena.
Empirical evidence suggests that movements in international relative prices (such
as the real exchange rate) are large and persistent. Nontraded goods, both in
the form of ¯nal consumption goods and as an input into the production of ¯-
nal tradable goods, are an important aspect behind international relative price
movements. In this paper we show that nontraded goods have important impli-
cations for exchange rate behavior, even though °uctuations in the relative price
of nontraded goods account for a relatively small fraction of real exchange rate
In other words, we exclude both the analysis of other (non-economic) foreign policies with
an impact on the development of development-aid-receiving countries, and the coherence
between the instruments and objectives of international development cooperation policy.
Some of these aspects are covered in previous papers on the coherence of Spain’s
development policies, such as Alonso and FitzGerald (2003).
Very broadly speaking, the development of aid-receiving countries has been established
as the objective we have to be consistent with.
By 1945 Blue Cross had captured 59% of the health insurance market. The idea of prepaid health insurance was
solidified on the American landscape in 1954, when the Internal Revenue Code codified the deductibility of health
insurance payments. The employer deduction significantly reduced the cost of health insurance for consumers eligi-
ble for an employer-provided group plan.
The federal government cast the Blue Cross Blue Shield approach in regulatory concrete in 1965 when Congress
passed the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
The second edition of Safety Evaluation of Medical Devices continues to focus
on the objective of the first edition—to serve as a single-volume practical guide
for those who are responsible for or concerned with ensuring safety in the use
and manufacture of medical devices. It benefits from recognition of the limitations
and shortcomings of the previous edition, and also reflects the changes in
regulations, science, and the marketplace.
This Report illustrates the vigorous efforts being
undertaken by many developing countries to catch up
with their more developed partners in the dissemination
and use of ICT. However, it also shows that the
gaps are still far too wide and the catching-up far too
uneven for the promise of a truly global information
society, with its attendant benefits for sustainable
social and economic development, to materialize without the sustained engagement of national Governments, the business sector and civil society, and the tangible solidarity of the international community...
This paper studies the maturity composition and the term structure of interest rate spreads
of government debt in emerging markets. In the data, when interest rate spreads rise, debt
maturity shortens and the spread on short-term bonds is higher than on long-term bonds.
To account for this pattern, we build a dynamic model of international borrowing with
endogenous default and multiple maturities of debt.
Despite expectations born a decade ago, there are only a few successes in stratified
medicine up to now and its implementation proves to be challenging in many aspects.
Numerous factors are considered in making decisions. Indeed the pharmaceutical sector
becomes increasingly aware of the potential benefits of stratified medicine but it seems
inhibited by uncertainties.