Internal market aspects

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  • In the EU, investment funds can be broadly categorised as UCITS (undertakings for collective investment in transferable securities) and non-UCITS (or non-harmonised) funds. 1 UCITS funds are those that comply with harmonised rules as laid down in the UCITS Directive (85/611/EEC) and are authorised for sale to the retail market. Non-harmonised funds (hereafter referred to collectively as alternative investment funds, or AIF) do not form a homogenous class of investment fund. 2 AIF invest in a wide variety of asset types and employ very different investment strategies.

    pdf0p quaivatdo 19-11-2012 25 4   Download

  • At the start of the twenty-first century, international aspects of economics remain as important and controversial as ever.

    pdf782p theboy_ldv 13-06-2010 260 145   Download

  • Risk is an important aspect of any business operation. Without taking business risks, growth and profi t would be almost impossible. It permeates all of the fundamental business challenges companies face, from recruiting the best people to managing the business’ fi nance. However, the best companies are not those that avoid risk, but rather those that understand and control the risks they are taking.

    pdf0p hoadat_1990 12-07-2013 31 9   Download

  • The survey was completed in July & August 2006 and is building on similar surveys conducted in 2001 and 2003. In 2006, we organised the survey as a joint initiative with the Czech Institute of Internal Auditors (ČIIA). Our objective is to provide an independent forum to report on key trends, and emerging issues regarding many aspects of the Internal Audit (“IA”) function in various industry segments operating in the Czech Republic.

    pdf40p hoadat_1990 12-07-2013 22 5   Download

  • We have defined and described different types of PMO that exist across various organisations, the type of activity undertaken by these PMOs and the degree of influence they can have on key aspects of project, programme and portfolio management. To conclude, we would like to reinforce the fact that “Establishing a PMO is not a simple solution to a complex problem”. Having a PMO does not, by itself, increase project success.

    pdf12p lenh_hoi_xung 21-02-2013 18 3   Download

  • Chapter 18 decribes international aspects of financial management. In this chapter you will understand how exchange rates are quoted and what they mean, know the difference between spot and forward rates, understand purchasing power parity and interest rate parity and the implications for changes in exchange rates, understand the types of exchange rate risk and how they can be managed, understand the impact of political risk on international business investing.

    ppt22p tangtuy04 16-03-2016 9 3   Download

  • Equally important, negotiators should focus early on obtaining a North Korean commitment that it will halt illicit procurements from abroad for its nuclear programs and end the proliferation of its nuclear technology. The latter is especially important for negotiations to establish in a verifiable manner. While waiting for negotiations to bear fruit, the United States and its allies will face two interconnected challenges. They must slow down North Korea’s centrifuge program, or at least make progress more costly and visible to the international community.

    pdf42p bocapchetnguoi 06-12-2012 18 0   Download

  • Developing countries’ markets depend extensively (technically and financially) on international services. Reasons for this include (among others) structural, financial and technical constraints, including the small size of markets, under-capitalization of insurance companies and insufficient experience and know-how. Usually, insurance industries there also have a shortage of skilled personnel.

    pdf446p thangbienthai 27-11-2012 38 11   Download

  • As a matter of fact in some countries, mainly in India, groundwater development is much more important than surface water irrigation (Mukherji et al. 2009). While rainfed crops depend only on meteorological conditions, irrigated crops depend both on rain regimes and water supply. The combination of these regimes and the interdependencies between international commodity markets and domestic production create opportunities to ensure that water is allocated to the most valuable ends.

    pdf160p huetay_1 28-02-2013 35 9   Download

  • Empirical evidence regarding international relative prices at the consumer level suggests that arbitrage in international markets is not rapid and that these markets are highly segmented. In fact, even markets for traded goods appear to be highly segmented internationally: In the data, both real exchange rate movements and deviations from the law of one price for traded goods are large and persistent.

    pdf496p dangsuynghi 15-03-2013 29 8   Download

  • Sales promotions can be seen as a service that provides encouragement to purchase a product or service by changing the perceived value-for-money equation. In the past decade manufacturers and retailers have been gradually switching from above the line mass media advertising to a variety of below the line sales promotions. Although sales promotions take up a very large share of total marketing expenditure, they remain an area which has less strategic consideration or attention than any other aspect of the promotion mix, especially in the international market arena.

    pdf16p khanhchilam 01-04-2013 24 8   Download

  • Empirical evidence suggests that movements in international relative prices (such as the real exchange rate) are large and persistent. Nontraded goods, both in the form of ¯nal consumption goods and as an input into the production of ¯- nal tradable goods, are an important aspect behind international relative price movements. In this paper we show that nontraded goods have important impli- cations for exchange rate behavior, even though °uctuations in the relative price of nontraded goods account for a relatively small fraction of real exchange rate movements.

    pdf40p dangsuynghi 15-03-2013 26 5   Download

  • In other words, we exclude both the analysis of other (non-economic) foreign policies with an impact on the development of development-aid-receiving countries, and the coherence between the instruments and objectives of international development cooperation policy. Some of these aspects are covered in previous papers on the coherence of Spain’s development policies, such as Alonso and FitzGerald (2003). Very broadly speaking, the development of aid-receiving countries has been established as the objective we have to be consistent with.

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  • The second edition of Safety Evaluation of Medical Devices continues to focus on the objective of the first edition—to serve as a single-volume practical guide for those who are responsible for or concerned with ensuring safety in the use and manufacture of medical devices. It benefits from recognition of the limitations and shortcomings of the previous edition, and also reflects the changes in regulations, science, and the marketplace.

    pdf554p waduroi 03-11-2012 19 3   Download

  • By 1945 Blue Cross had captured 59% of the health insurance market. The idea of prepaid health insurance was solidified on the American landscape in 1954, when the Internal Revenue Code codified the deductibility of health insurance payments. The employer deduction significantly reduced the cost of health insurance for consumers eligi- ble for an employer-provided group plan. The federal government cast the Blue Cross Blue Shield approach in regulatory concrete in 1965 when Congress passed the Medicare and Medicaid programs.

    pdf54p quaivatxanh 30-11-2012 19 4   Download

  • This Report illustrates the vigorous efforts being undertaken by many developing countries to catch up with their more developed partners in the dissemination and use of ICT. However, it also shows that the gaps are still far too wide and the catching-up far too uneven for the promise of a truly global information society, with its attendant benefits for sustainable social and economic development, to materialize without the sustained engagement of national Governments, the business sector and civil society, and the tangible solidarity of the international community...

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  • This paper studies the maturity composition and the term structure of interest rate spreads of government debt in emerging markets. In the data, when interest rate spreads rise, debt maturity shortens and the spread on short-term bonds is higher than on long-term bonds. To account for this pattern, we build a dynamic model of international borrowing with endogenous default and multiple maturities of debt.

    pdf0p enter1cai 16-01-2013 14 2   Download

  • Despite expectations born a decade ago, there are only a few successes in stratified medicine up to now and its implementation proves to be challenging in many aspects. Numerous factors are considered in making decisions. Indeed the pharmaceutical sector becomes increasingly aware of the potential benefits of stratified medicine but it seems inhibited by uncertainties.

    pdf12p quynho77 14-11-2012 15 1   Download

  • This text offers business school students an excellent practical explanation of the short-term linkages in the macroeconomic arena. While the underlying theoretical constructs are not ignored, emphasis is placed on the empirical underpinnings and managerial implications of macroeconomics. The text begins by introducing key concepts such as the GDP, National and Personal Income, and the various measures of inflation and unemployment.

    pdf838p buoi_chieu 23-04-2013 63 31   Download

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