Encyclopedic Dictionary of International Finance and
is written and compiled
for working professionals engaged in the fields of international finance, global trade, foreign
investments, and banking. It may be used for day-to-day practice and for technical research.
is a practical reference of proven techniques, strategies, and
approaches that are successfully used by professionals to diagnose multinational finance and
Developing products and services; communicating and interacting with foreign business partners; screening and selecting foreign distributors and other partners; negotiating and structuring international business ventures; interacting with current and potential customers from abroad; preparing for overseas trade fairs and exhibitions; preparing advertising and promotional materials.
Table 54-14 Causes of Urticaria and Angioedema
I. Primary cutaneous disorders
A. Acute and chronic urticariaa
B. Physical urticaria
2. Solar urticariab
3. Cold urticariab
4. Cholinergic urticariab
C. Angioedema (hereditary and acquired)b
II. Systemic diseases
A. Urticarial vasculitis
B. Hepatitis B or C infection
C. Serum sickness
D. Angioedema (hereditary and acquired)
A small minority develop anaphylaxis.
The common physical urticarias include dermographism, solar urticaria, cold urticaria, and cholinergic urticaria.
71 MA If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition,
what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice.
If I were asked to send one thing representing my country to an international exhibition. I’d send
something unexpected: one week’s worth of television programming. These programs would best
represent my county. They show how the citizens of my country live and what they think and feel.
The dramas on television are very realistic. They show how people in different parts of...
This book is about the structure and function of computers. Its purpose is to present, as
clearly and completely as possible, the nature and characteristics of modern-day computers.
This task is a challenging one for two reasons.
First, there is a tremendous variety of products, from single-chip microcomputers
costing a few dollars to supercomputers costing tens of millions of dollars, that can
rightly claim the name computer.Variety is exhibited not only in cost, but also in size,
performance, and application.
Other Nonmelanoma Cutaneous Malignancies
Neoplasms of cutaneous adnexa and sarcomas of fibrous, mesenchymal, fatty, and vascular tissues make up 1–2% of NMSC (Table 83-6). Some can portend a poor prognosis such as Merkel cell carcinoma, which is a neural crestderived, highly aggressive malignancy that exhibits a metastatic rate of 75% and a 5-year survival rate of 30–40%. Others, such as the human herpes virus 8-induced, HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, exhibit a more indolent course.
Transferase Variants One of the most extensively studied phase II polymorphisms is the PM trait for thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT). TPMT bioinactivates the antileukemic drug 6-mercaptopurine. Further, 6-mercaptopurine is itself an active metabolite of the immunosuppressive azathioprine. Homozygotes for alleles encoding the inactive TPMT (1 in 300 individuals) predictably exhibit severe and potentially fatal pancytopenia on standard doses of azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 39. Nausea, Vomiting, and Indigestion
Nausea, Vomiting, and Indigestion: Introduction
Nausea is the subjective feeling of a need to vomit. Vomiting (emesis) is the oral expulsion of gastrointestinal contents resulting from contractions of gut and thoracoabdominal wall musculature. Vomiting is contrasted with regurgitation, the effortless passage of gastric contents into the mouth. Rumination is the repeated regurgitation of stomach contents, which may be rechewed and reswallowed.
Classes There are five major classes of hemoglobinopathies (Table 99-1). Structural hemoglobinopathies occur when mutations alter the amino acid sequence of a globin chain, altering the physiologic properties of the variant hemoglobins and producing the characteristic clinical abnormalities. The most clinically relevant variant hemoglobins polymerize abnormally, as in sickle cell anemia, or exhibit altered solubility or oxygen-binding affinity. Thalassemia syndromes arise from mutations that impair production or translation of globin mRNA, leading to deficient globin chain biosynthesis.
Source: Modified from TA Roth, L Merlotti in SA Burton et al (eds), Narcolepsy 3rd International Symposium: Selected Symposium Proceedings, Chicago, Matrix Communications, 1989.
Narcolepsy affects about 1 in 4000 people in the United States and appears to have a genetic basis.
Pemphigus Foliaceus Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is distinguished from PV by several features. In PF, acantholytic blisters are located high within the epidermis, usually just beneath the stratum corneum. Hence PF is a more superficial blistering disease than PV. The distribution of lesions in the two disorders is much the same, except that in PF mucous membranes are almost always spared. Patients with PF rarely demonstrate intact blisters but rather exhibit shallow erosions associated with erythema, scale, and crust formation.
Chromosomal Instability in Solid Tumors Solid tumors are generally highly aneuploid, containing an abnormal number of chromosomes; these chromosomes also exhibit structural alterations such as translocations, deletions, and amplifications. Again, colon cancer has proven to be a particularly useful model for the study of chromosomal instability (CIN). As described above, some familial cases are characterized by the presence of MIN.
Normalization of tumor blood vessels due to inhibition of VEGF signaling.
A. Blood vessels in normal tissues exhibit a regular hierarchical branching pattern that delivers blood to tissues in a spatially and temporally efficient manner to meet the metabolic needs of the tissue (top). At the microscopic level, tight junctions are maintained between endothelial cells (EC), which are adherent to a thick and evenly distributed basement membrane (BM). Pericytes form a surrounding layer that provides trophic signals to the EC and helps maintain proper vessel tone.
Patients with neuromuscular disease often have an abnormal gait, occasionally as a presenting feature. With distal weakness (peripheral neuropathy) the step height is increased to compensate for foot drop, and the sole of the foot may slap on the floor during weight acceptance. Neuropathy may be associated with a degree of sensory imbalance, as described above. Patients with myopathy or muscular dystrophy more typically exhibit proximal weakness. Weakness of the hip girdle may result in a degree of excess pelvic sway during locomotion.
Gastrointestinal Motor Stimulants
Drugs that stimulate gastric emptying are indicated for gastroparesis (Table 39-2). Metoclopramide, a combined 5-HT4 agonist and D2 antagonist, exhibits efficacy in gastroparesis, but antidopaminergic side effects limit its use in 25% of patients. Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, increases gastroduodenal motility by action on receptors for motilin, an endogenous stimulant of fasting motor activity. Intravenous erythromycin is useful for inpatients with refractory gastroparesis; however, oral forms also have some utility.
Transgenic Mice as Models of Genetic Disease
Several organisms have been studied extensively as genetic models, including Mus musculus (mouse), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast), and Escherichia coli (colonic bacterium). The ability to use these evolutionarily distant organisms as genetic models that are relevant to human physiology reflects a surprising conservation of genetic pathways and gene function.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 110. Coagulation Disorders
Coagulation Disorders: Introduction
Deficiencies of coagulation factors have been recognized for centuries. Patients with genetic deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors exhibit lifelong recurrent bleeding episodes into joints, muscles, and closed spaces, either spontaneously or following an injury. The most common inherited factor deficiencies are the hemophilias, X-linked diseases caused by deficiency of Factor (F) VIII (hemophilia A) or Factor IX (FIX, hemophilia B).
A survey of members of the Incentive Travel and Meetings Association (ITMA) and of incentive
travel and conference organising agencies (key results published in ‘Conference & Exhibition
Fact Finder Magazine – November 2002) found that 63% of all incentive travel programmes
arranged for UK clients take place within the UK and Europe. The average size of events
organised by the majority of companies (63%) was between 50 and 99 people, and no increase
in the size of groups was anticipated in the next two years.
After program outcomes are defined in general terms, the next step is to translate
the statements into specific indicators that will be measured.
For each outcome, the working group needs to identify one or more outcome
indicators that could be measured to track progress toward the outcomes. Key criteria
are the feasibility and cost of measurement.
Outcome indicators should almost always begin with words such as “The number
of . . .” or “The percent of . . .”
Exhibit 8 illustrates the relationship between a program’s mission/objectives,
outcomes, and outcome indicators.
238 Planning and Forecasting
be binding upon the partnership and the other partners, regardless of whether such action has been internally authorized (see Exhibit 8.1). Thus, if Jennifer purchases a subscription to the Harvard Business Review for the partnership, and such an action is perceived to be within the ordinary course of the partnership’s business, that obligation can be enforced against the partnership, even if Jean and George had voted against it.