The philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey believed that historians who
judge past events by the standards of later eras are acting ahistorically
and arbitrarily. It was more valid and illuminating, he
suggested, to ask whether earlier statesmen’s actions were internally
consistent and well-aligned with existing circumstances, an
approach that he called “immanent critique.”1
In judging contemporary climate policies, some scientists and
environmental activists resemble the historians of whom Dilthey
Support to the mitigation of effects of CC and adaptation to new realities. Support to mitigation of GHG emissions. Support to developing carbon markets. Support to research, data collection and analysis. Support to development of national policies, strategies, plans. Support to national-international coordination, policy dialogue, ODA channeling
The problem of reconciling environmental protection with economic and social viability
was a key concern of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in
Rio de Janiero, Brazil, in 1992. The Conference, known as the Earth Summit, led to the
establishment of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The Commission
is responsible for monitoring the implementation of the Conference programme of action, Agenda
21, at the local, national, regional and international levels.
Although the very first carbon offset project was voluntary,
much of the work to
establish real markets for carbon offsets has been done in the context of designing
regulatory programs. Many experimental carbon offset projects were undertaken in the
1990s, for example, in order to inform negotiations under the Framework Convention on
Climate Change about the design of an international GHG emissions trading system.
The scientific evidence is clear: before 2020 global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) must peak and by 2050 they must be reduced by 50-85% below 2000 levels, in order to avoid a rise in global temperature of 2°C or more above the preindustrial level.2 Without ambitious international action, new scientific research3 predicts close to, or even more than, a metre of sea level rise by the end of this century, due to melting glaciers and expansion of the oceans. Tthese and other changes will have serious economic and human consequences....