International obligations

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  • Policy makers (executives and government leaders), educators, and students alike have a basic obligation to take advantage of the opportunities to learn and transmit the knowledge of the world. International experiences are not luxuries.Without the comprehension of global issues, education is not complete. International marketing is not a subset or special case of domestic marketing. While a person should benefit from an observation of marketing in another culture, the greater benefit is derived from one’s better understanding of oneself in the process.

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  • Subject to the right of suppliers or contractors to protect their intellectual property or trade secrets, the procuring entity may require suppliers or contractors participating in procurement proceedings to provide such appropriate documentary evidence or other information as it may deem useful to satisfy itself that the suppliers or contractors are qualified in accordance with the criteria referred to in paragraph.

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  • Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are playing an increasing political role on the international scene, and their position in relation to international law is generally regarded as important but informal. Their actual legal status has not been the subject of much investigation. This book examines the legal status of NGOs in different fields of international law, with emphasis on human rights law.

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  • Given recent seismic upheavals in the world’s money markets, an updated edition of an authoritative, reliable textbook on the international law of foreign investment has rarely been so timely. Sornarajah’s classic text surveys how international law has developed to protect foreign investments by multinational actors and to control any misconduct on their part. It analyses treaty-based methods, examining the effectiveness of bilateral and regional investment treaties.

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  • The concept of obligations erga omnes – obligations owed to the international community as awhole – has fascinated international lawyers for decades, yet its precise implications remain unclear. This book assesses how this concept affects the enforcement of international law. It shows that all States are entitled to invoke obligations erga omnes in proceedings before the International Court of Justice, and to take countermeasures in response to serious erga omnes breaches. In addition, it suggests ways of identifying obligations that qualify as erga omnes.

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  • This study of the origins of international law combines techniques of intellectual history and historiography to investigate the earliest developments of the law of nations. The book examines the sources, processes, and doctrines of international legal obligation in antiquity to reevaluate the critical attributes of international law. David J.

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  • The definition of investor and investment is key to the scope of application of rights and obligations of investment agreements and to the establishment of the jurisdiction of investment treaty-based arbitral tribunals. This factual survey of state practice and jurisprudence aims to clarify the requirements to be met by individuals and corporations in order to

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  • This chapter describe the types of postemployment benefit plans and the implications for financial reports, explain and calculate measures of a defined benefit pension obligation (i.e., present value of the defined benefit obligation and projected benefit obligation) and net pension liability (or asset), describe the components of a company’s defined benefit pension costs,…

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  • This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 31 December 2008. IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets was issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee in September 1998. It replaced parts of IAS 10 Contingencies and Events Occurring After the Balance Sheet Date (issued in 1978 and reformatted in 1994) that dealt with contingencies.

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  • The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (hereinafter referred to collectively as "Parties" and individually as "Party"), Desiring to establish and develop mutually beneficial and equitable economic and trade relations on the basis of mutual respect for their respective independence and sovereignty; Acknowledging that the adoption of and compliance with international trade norms and standards by the Parties will aid the development of mutually beneficial trade relations, and should be the underlying basis of those relations...

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  • Research, development and industrialisation of renewable energy are currently moving at a rapid pace worldwide. Biofuels play significant roles in decarbonisation of our future energy needs and act to mitigate deleterious impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. Liquid transportation biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) now represent key contributors to the bioenergy portfolios in many countries.

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  • The Modern-Day Physician No greater opportunity, responsibility, or obligation can fall to the lot of a human being than to become a physician. In the care of the suffering, [the physician] needs technical skill, scientific knowledge, and human understanding. . . . Tact, sympathy, and understanding are expected of the physician, for the patient is no mere collection of symptoms, signs, disordered functions, damaged organs, and disturbed emotions. [The patient] is human, fearful, and hopeful, seeking relief, help, and reassurance.

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  • My interest in the relationship between tort law and the implementation of international human rights standards, particularly the European Convention on Human Rights, was prompted by a series of cases decided in the last decade that challenged the English courts to make public authorities accountable for their actions. Perhaps the most notable was the House of Lords’ decision in X v.

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  • Novell, Inc. makes no representations or warranties with respect to the contents or use of this manual, and specifically disclaims any express or implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Further, Novell, Inc. reserves the right to revise this publication and to make changes in its content at any time, without obligation to notify any person or entity of such revisions or changes.

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  • It is unusual I assume for a businessman to accept the obligation of writing a foreword to a book of idealism, and any attempt on my part to add to its spiritual content would be vain assumption. But since I know of the phenomenal results of idealizing the process, I can perhaps give some measure of faith and hope to those who have not always succeeded and who now doubt the possibility of making their ideals become realities. My certainty of the results of this process bases itself upon many years' personal contact with the attainments of Brown Landone,...

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  • The relationships between international intellectual property treaties, the United Nations international environmental treaties (first and fore- most the convention on Biological Diversity), the relevant customary norms and soft law form a complex network of obligations that some- times conflict with each other. The first set of treaties creates private rights while the latter affirms the sovereignty rights of States over genetic resources and related knowledge and creates international regimes of exploitation of the same....

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  • Chapter 123. Clostridium difficile–Associated Disease, Including Pseudomembranous Colitis (Part 1) Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 123. Clostridium difficile– Associated Disease, Including Pseudomembranous Colitis Etiology and Epidemiology C. difficile is an obligately anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus whose spores are found widely in nature, particularly in the environment of hospitals and chronic-care facilities. CDAD occurs most frequently in hospitals and nursing homes where the level of antimicrobial use is high and the environment is contaminated by C.

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  • Research, development and industrialisation of renewable energy are currently moving at a rapid pace worldwide. Biofuels play significant roles in decarbonisation of our future energy needs and act to mitigate deleterious impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. Liquid transportation biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) now represent key contributors to the bioenergy portfolios in many countries. National governmental obligations and international directives are mandating the blending of biofuels in petrol (gasoline) and diesel and these are acting as great stimuli to this industrial sector.

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  • Epidemiology Hemoglobinopathies are especially common in areas in which malaria is endemic. This clustering of hemoglobinopathies is assumed to reflect a selective survival advantage for the abnormal RBC, which presumably provide a less hospitable environment during the obligate RBC stages of the parasitic life cycle. Very young children with αthalassemia are more susceptible to infection with the nonlethal Plasmodium vivax. Thalassemia might then favor a natural protection against infection with the more lethal P. falciparum.

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  • The Court underlined further the importance of the reasonable use of fisheries and the obligation of states to negotiate55 an equitable solution to the problem.

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