Internet Routing Architectures, Second Edition expands on the highly successful first edition, with new updates on BGP4 and current perspectives on internetworking routing architectures. This book is intended for any organization needing to build an efficient, reliable, enterprise network accessing the Internet. Its purpose is to make you an expert on integrating your network into the global Internet. It is written to address real routing issues, using real scenarios, in a comprehensive and accessible manner.
The Internet, an upstart academic experiment in the late 1960s, struggles with identity and
success today. From the ARPANET to the NSFnet to ANYBODYSNET, the Internet is no
longer owned by a single entity; it is owned by anybody who can afford to buy space on it.
Tens of millions of users are seeking connectivity, and tens of thousands of companies are
feeling left out if they do not tap into the Internet. This has put network designers and
administrators under a lot of pressure to keep up with networking and connectivity needs.
Mạng chuyển mạch gói (packet switching network)
Vấn đề của Network layer
Cần có các phần tử mạng phân tán: switch and router
Large scale: nhiều user (con nguời & thiết bị truyền thông)
Địa chỉ hóa và định tuyến (addressing & routing)
Chức năng của Network layer
Routing: Cơ chế định tuyến cho các gói tin trong mạng
Forwarding: chuyển tiếp các gói tin qua các thiêt bị mạng
Priority & scheduling: xác định trật tự truyền các gói tin trong mạng
Congestion control, segmentation & reassem...
Routing is simultaneously the most complicated function of a network and the most important. Most
knowledgeable people agree that networking and routing technologies have been around about 25 years.
The concept of routing actually dates back to the late 1950s, when computing was still an arcane science
in its infancy. Precious few organizations had a single computer, much less multiple computers that
needed to be linked together. Internetworking, the interconnection of multiple computers, was still more
of a futuristic vision than a reality.
his book is intended to help you continue on your exciting new path
toward obtaining your CCNP and CCIE certification. Before reading this
book, it is important to have at least read the Sybex
CCNA: Cisco Certified
Network Associate Study Guide, Second Edition.
You can take the CCNP
tests in any order, but you should have passed the CCNA exam before pursuing
your CCNP. Many questions in the Routing exam are built upon the
CCNA material. However, we have done everything possible to make sure
that you can pass the Routing exam by reading this book and practicing with
Internet Protocol là một giao thức ở tầng mạng, hai chức năng cơ bản: chọn đường (routing): xác định đường đi của gói tin từ nguồn đến đích, Chuyển tiếp (forwarding): chuyển dữ liệu từ đầu vào tới đầu ra của bộ định tuyển (router)
This is the second lab exercise and should be attempted only after completing the first lab exercise. This lab has two
parts. In the first part, a link is configured as an ISL trunk and then inter-VLAN routing is configured. In the second
part, Multi-layer Switching is configured and an access list is added.
The TCP/IP protocol suite has become the de facto standard for computer communications in today's networked world. The ubiquitous implementation of a specific networking standard has led to an incredible dependence on the applications enabled by it. Today, we use the TCP/IP protocols and the Internet not only for entertainment and information, but to conduct our business by performing transactions, buying and selling products, and delivering services to customers.
Your corporate network equipment currently includes a 4006 Core switch with an L3 module for
VLAN routing and a Cisco 2600 external access router. Connected to your corporate network via
a 128k leased line is your branch network that includes a 2600 Cisco WAN router and a 2600XL
switch for local access. Your corporate network is segmented into four functional VLANs for
better network management. VLANs include “Accounting”, “Marketing” and “Engineering” for the
users and “default” used for the native VLAN network management.
Network loads and management issues require you to segment your network from a single
broadcast domain into four functional areas. You select to implement VLANs throughout your
Cisco 2900-switched network and will refer to them as “Accounting”, “Marketing” and
“Engineering” for the users, and “default” used for the native VLAN network management. After
deciding on your subnet ranges and VTP information, illustrated below, your next step is to
implement Inter-VLAN routing using your Cisco 2600 series router.
Your network switching equipment currently includes a 4006 Core switch, 2900XL access switch
and a Cisco 2600 series external access router. Your network is segmented into four functional
VLANs for better network management. VLANs include “Accounting”, “Marketing” and
“Engineering” for the users and “default” used for the native VLAN network management. Inter-
VLAN routing has been implemented using a Layer-3 routing switch module for the 4006 to allow
individuals and servers on your Virtual LANs to exchange information.
For years now, data networks have become increasingly important. At first,
networks were just a large corporate phenomenon. Now, almost any business
with more than a few computers or more than one location has a data network.
And now, with the growth of the Internet, many people’s home computers
are often connected to a network. As data networks grow in size and
importance, there must be a corresponding growth of people required to
design, build, and maintain them.
Remember that loopback interfaces will show up as /32 routes in OSPF and EIGRP. Configure a summary address or range in order to reflect the proper subnet carried by the loopback interface. This is most important in LAT translation and NAT when a NAT address or LAT translation address calls for an address within the loopback's subnet. The remote router won't know about that address since only the /32 address of the loopback interface itself will be advertised. Same for PPP dialup routes apparently....
In this lab, a default route will be configured and RIP used to propagate this default information to
other routers. When this configuration is working properly, the network will be migrated from RIP to
IGRP and default routing will be configured to work with that protocol as well.
Cable a network similar to the one in the diagram. Any router that meets the interface requirements
displayed on the above diagram, such as 800, 1600, 1700, 2500, 2600 routers, or a combination,
may be used.
As internetworks grew in scale and diversity in the early 1990s, new routing protocols were
needed. Cisco developed
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
to address many of the limitations of IGRP and RIP. As WANs were growing, so was the
need for a routing protocol that would use efficient address space on WAN links, as well as
the LAN networks. OSPF was available, but the CPU-intensive tasks that it had to perform
often overloaded the small processors of many edge or remote routers of that time. The configuration
was also more complex than that of RIP or IGRP.
Most routing protocols fall into one of two classes: distance vector or
link state. The basics of distance vector routing protocols are examined
here; the next section covers link state routing protocols. Most
distance vector algorithms are based on the work done of R. E. Bellman,
L. R. Ford, and D. R. Fulkerson, and for this reason occasionally are
referred to as BellmanFord
algorithms. A notable
exception is EIGRP, which is based on an algorithm developed by J. J.
Garcia Luna Aceves....