Interpreting, like playing chess, is a game of problem solving, evaluation, critical
thinking, intuition and forecasting. Every game is different and each game is a challenge,
which requires interpreters, to unceasingly develop knowledge and experience. It is
disciplined study and repeated practice of many techniques and skills that bring victory to
the interpreter. Apart from basic requirements of language mastery and culture sensitivity,
there are quite a few skills that need to be acquired for successful interpreting. One of
them is note-taking skill....
Technical terms used throughout this guide are defined
and explained below. Terms are not presented alphabetically.
They are arranged in an order that is more suitable for readers
to learn the fundamentals of interpreting concepts,
terminology, and procedure.
This is a fully revised and updated edition of the major work that teaches health professionals to utilize the 12-lead ECG in daily clinical practice. It deals with the analysis of the morphology of ECG waveforms in order to diagnose many conditions not related to rhythm, including ischemia, acute myocardial infarction, and hypertrophy of the heart muscle. Almost all other texts of morphologic interpretation for non-cardiologists rely heavily on memorizing electrocardiographic patterns.
Sự khác nhau cơ bản của Translator và Interpreter
."Interpreting" (thông dịch) và "Translation" (dịch thuật) đều liên quan đến hai ngành language (ngôn ngữ) and linguistics (ngôn ngữ học) nhưng hiếm khi được thực hiện bởi cùng một người hoặc nhiều người.
Ebook Origami for Interpreters presents his most beautiful models. Clear precise and detailed diagrams will lead you step by step through the folding of each figure. Within the reach of most the models are classified from the simplest through to the most complex. From the cockerel to the elephant and from the panda to the crane learn to fold 21 lifelike and astonishing animals. Color photographs at the front of the book illustrate what each finished model looks like. The rest of the book consists of black and white step-by-step folding instructions.
This paper describes a practical method of automatic simultaneous interpretation utilizing an example-based incremental transfer mechanism. We primarily show how incremental translation is achieved in the context of an example-based framework. We then examine the type of translation examples required for a simultaneous interpretation to create naturally communicative dialogs. Finally, we propose a scheme for automatic simultaneous interpretation exploiting this example-based incremental translation mechanism. ...
This paper 1 decdbes a computational treatment of the semantics of relational nouns. It covers relational nouns such as "sister.and "commander; and focuses especially on a particular subcategory of them, called function nouns ('speed; "distance', "rating'). Relational nouns are usually viewed as either requiring non-compositional semantic interpretation, or causing an undesirable proliferation of syntactic rules. In contrast to this, we present a treatment which is both syntactically uniform and semantically compositional.
Supporting natural language input may improve learning in intelligent tutoring systems. However, interpretation errors are unavoidable and require an effective recovery policy. We describe an evaluation of an error recovery policy in the B EE TLE II tutorial dialogue system and discuss how different types of interpretation problems affect learning gain and user satisfaction.
The interpretation of temporal expressions in text is an important constituent task for many practical natural language processing tasks, including question-answering, information extraction and text summarisation. Although temporal expressions have long been studied in the research literature, it is only more recently, with the impetus provided by exercises like the ACE Program, that attention has been directed to broad-coverage, implemented systems. In this paper, we describe our approach to intermediate semantic representations in the interpretation of temporal expressions. ...
In this paper we present results on developing robust natural language interfaces by combining shallow and partial interpretation with dialogue management. The key issue is to reduce the effort needed to adapt the knowledge sources for parsing and interpretation to a necessary minimum. In the paper we identify different types of information and present corresponding computational models. The approach utilizes an automatically generated lexicon which is updated with information from a corpus of simulated dialogues. The grammar is developed manually from the same knowledge sources. ...
We discuss an interactive approach to robust interpretation in a large scale speech-to-speech translation system. Where other interactive approaches to robust interpretation have depended upon domain dependent repair rules, the approach described here operates efficiently without any such hand-coded repair knowledge and yields a 37% reduction in error rate over a corpus of noisy sentences.
The paper presents a tabular interpretation for a kind of 2-Stack Automata. These automata may be used to describe various parsing strategies, ranging from purely top-down to purely bottom-up, for LIGs and TAGs. The tabular interpretation ensures, for all strategies, a time complexity in O(n 6) and space complexity in O(n 5) where n is the length of the input string.
This paper shows that a first-order unificationbased semantic interpretation for various coordinate constructs is possible without an explicit use of lambda expressions if we slightly modify the standard Montagovian semantics of coordination. This modification, along with partial execution, completely eliminates the lambda reduction steps during semantic interpretation.
We report on a mechanism for semantic and pragmatic interpretation that has been designed to take advantage of the generally compositional nature of semantic analysis, without unduly constraining the order in which pragmatic decisions are made. To achieve this goal, we introduce the idea of a conditional interpretation: one that depends upon a set of assumptions about subsequent pragmatic processing. Conditional interpretations are constructed compositionally according to a set of declaratively specified interpretation rules.
An approach to abductive inference developed in the TACITUS project has resulted in a dramatic simplification of how the problem of interpreting texts is conceptualized. Its use in solving the local pragmatics problems of reference, compound nominals, syntactic ambiguity, and metonymy is described and illustrated. It also suggests an elegant and thorough integration of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.
In data-oriented language processing, an annotated language corpus is used as a stochastic grammar. The most probable analysis of a new sentence is constructed by combining fragments from the corpus in the most probable way. This approach has been successfully used for syntactic analysis, using corpora with syntactic annotations such as the Penn Tree-bank. If a corpus with semantically annotated sentences is used, the same approach can also generate the most probable semantic interpretation of an input sentence. The present paper explains this semantic interpretation method. ...
We describe a method for interpreting abstract fiat syntactic representations, LFG fstructures, as underspecified semantic representations, here Underspecified Discourse Representation Structures (UDRSs). The method establishes a one-to-one correspondence between subsets of the LFG and UDRS formalisms. It provides a model theoretic interpretation and an inferential component which operates directly on underspecified representations for fstructures through the translation images of f-structures as UDRSs. ...
Island parsing is a powerful technique for parsing with Augmented ~ a n s i t i o n Networks (ATNs) which was developed and successfully applied in the HWIM speech understanding project. The HWIM application grammar did not, however, exploit Woods' original full ATN specification. This paper describes an island parsing interpreter based on HWIM, but containing substantial and important extensions to enable it to interpret any grammar which conforms to that full specification of 1970.
(BQ) Ebook Bayley III clinical use and interpretation provides an introduction into use of the Bayley-III in each of these five areas. For each of these areas, individual chapters cover the relevant test content, administration, scoring, interpretation, strengths/concerns, and uses in clinical populations. Each chapter also includes a real life case study demonstrating typical performance of a child with delays one of the five areas of development.