Xem 1-20 trên 202 kết quả Interpretative nature
  • Although the problem of querying a database in natural language has been studied extensively, there has been relatively little work on processing database updates expressed in natural language. To interpret update requests, several linguistic issues must be addressod that do not typically pose difficulties when dealing exclusively with queries. This paper briefly examines some of the linguistic problems encountered, and describes an implemented system that performs simple natural language database update....

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  • If natural language had been designed by a logician, idioms would not exist. They are a feature of discourse that frustrates any simple logical account of how the meanings of utterances depend on the meanings of their parts and on the syntactic relation among those parts. Idioms are transparent to native speakers, but a course of perplexity to those who are acquiring a second language. If someone tells me that Mrs. Thatcher has become the Queen of Scotland, I am likely to say: "That's a tall story.

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  • This paper describes a practical method of automatic simultaneous interpretation utilizing an example-based incremental transfer mechanism. We primarily show how incremental translation is achieved in the context of an example-based framework. We then examine the type of translation examples required for a simultaneous interpretation to create naturally communicative dialogs. Finally, we propose a scheme for automatic simultaneous interpretation exploiting this example-based incremental translation mechanism. ...

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  • This paper 1 decdbes a computational treatment of the semantics of relational nouns. It covers relational nouns such as "sister.and "commander; and focuses especially on a particular subcategory of them, called function nouns ('speed; "distance', "rating'). Relational nouns are usually viewed as either requiring non-compositional semantic interpretation, or causing an undesirable proliferation of syntactic rules. In contrast to this, we present a treatment which is both syntactically uniform and semantically compositional.

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  • Marx, it is often assumed, cared only about industrial growth and the development of economic forces. John Bellamy Foster examines Marx's neglected writings on capitalist agriculture and soil ecology, philosophical naturalism, and evolutionary theory. He shows that Marx, known as a powerful critic of capitalist society, was also deeply concerned with the changing human relationship to nature. Marx's Ecology covers many other thinkers, including Epicurus, Charles Darwin, Thomas Malthus, Ludwig Feuerbach, P. J. Proudhon, and William Paley.

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  • Supporting natural language input may improve learning in intelligent tutoring systems. However, interpretation errors are unavoidable and require an effective recovery policy. We describe an evaluation of an error recovery policy in the B EE TLE II tutorial dialogue system and discuss how different types of interpretation problems affect learning gain and user satisfaction.

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  • The interpretation of temporal expressions in text is an important constituent task for many practical natural language processing tasks, including question-answering, information extraction and text summarisation. Although temporal expressions have long been studied in the research literature, it is only more recently, with the impetus provided by exercises like the ACE Program, that attention has been directed to broad-coverage, implemented systems. In this paper, we describe our approach to intermediate semantic representations in the interpretation of temporal expressions. ...

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  • In this paper we present results on developing robust natural language interfaces by combining shallow and partial interpretation with dialogue management. The key issue is to reduce the effort needed to adapt the knowledge sources for parsing and interpretation to a necessary minimum. In the paper we identify different types of information and present corresponding computational models. The approach utilizes an automatically generated lexicon which is updated with information from a corpus of simulated dialogues. The grammar is developed manually from the same knowledge sources. ...

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  • This paper proposes a method for organizing linguistic knowledge in both systematic and flexible fashion. We introduce a purely applicative language (PAL) as an intermediate representation and an object-oriented computation mechanism for its interpretation. PAL enables the establishment of a principled and well-constrained method of interaction among lexicon-oriented linguistic modules. The object-oriented computation mechanism provides a flexible means of abstracting modules and sharing common knowledge. ...

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  • We report on a mechanism for semantic and pragmatic interpretation that has been designed to take advantage of the generally compositional nature of semantic analysis, without unduly constraining the order in which pragmatic decisions are made. To achieve this goal, we introduce the idea of a conditional interpretation: one that depends upon a set of assumptions about subsequent pragmatic processing. Conditional interpretations are constructed compositionally according to a set of declaratively specified interpretation rules.

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  • An approach to abductive inference developed in the TACITUS project has resulted in a dramatic simplification of how the problem of interpreting texts is conceptualized. Its use in solving the local pragmatics problems of reference, compound nominals, syntactic ambiguity, and metonymy is described and illustrated. It also suggests an elegant and thorough integration of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

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  • In data-oriented language processing, an annotated language corpus is used as a stochastic grammar. The most probable analysis of a new sentence is constructed by combining fragments from the corpus in the most probable way. This approach has been successfully used for syntactic analysis, using corpora with syntactic annotations such as the Penn Tree-bank. If a corpus with semantically annotated sentences is used, the same approach can also generate the most probable semantic interpretation of an input sentence. The present paper explains this semantic interpretation method. ...

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  • We describe a method for interpreting abstract fiat syntactic representations, LFG fstructures, as underspecified semantic representations, here Underspecified Discourse Representation Structures (UDRSs). The method establishes a one-to-one correspondence between subsets of the LFG and UDRS formalisms. It provides a model theoretic interpretation and an inferential component which operates directly on underspecified representations for fstructures through the translation images of f-structures as UDRSs. ...

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  • Island parsing is a powerful technique for parsing with Augmented ~ a n s i t i o n Networks (ATNs) which was developed and successfully applied in the HWIM speech understanding project. The HWIM application grammar did not, however, exploit Woods' original full ATN specification. This paper describes an island parsing interpreter based on HWIM, but containing substantial and important extensions to enable it to interpret any grammar which conforms to that full specification of 1970.

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  • We think the parts are of interest in their o~. The paper consists of three sections: (I) We give a detailed description of the PROLOG implementation of the parser which is based on the theory of lexical functional grammar (I/V.). The parser covers the fragment described in [1,94]. I.e., it is able to analyse constructions involving functional control and long distance dependencies.

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  • NLFE to databases have failed in a commercial context, largely because of two reasons. Current approaches to the management of ambiguity by relying on inference over a world model create ungoing customisation requirements. Furthermore the design of NLFEs is subject to constraints which research in CL/ NLP does not address. In particular, standard parsing techniques (including "robust" ones) require complete lexica and cannot be deployed because new data would create a constant need for dictionary update.

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  • This paper describes a model of syntactical analysis. It shows first how a context-free grammar formalism can be modified in order to reduce the number of rules required by a natural language, and second, how this formalism can be extended to the handling of some non-contextfree phenomena. The description of the algorithm is also given.

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  • The automatic interpretation of noun-noun compounds is an important subproblem within many natural language processing applications and is an area of increasing interest. The problem is difficult, with disagreement regarding the number and nature of the relations, low inter-annotator agreement, and limited annotated data. In this paper, we present a novel taxonomy of relations that integrates previous relations, the largest publicly-available annotated dataset, and a supervised classification method for automatic noun compound interpretation.

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  • The use of figurative language is ubiquitous in natural language texts and it is a serious bottleneck in automatic text understanding. We address the problem of interpretation of logical metonymy, using a statistical method. Our approach originates from that of Lapata and Lascarides (2003), which generates a list of nondisambiguated interpretations with their likelihood derived from a corpus. We propose a novel sense-based representation of the interpretation of logical metonymy and a more thorough evaluation method than that of Lapata and Lascarides (2003). ...

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  • This paper presents an analysis of purpose clauses in the context of instruction understanding. Such analysis shows that goals affect the interpretation and / or execution of actions, lends support to the proposal of using generation and enablement to model relations between actions, and sheds light on some inference processes necessary to interpret purpose clauses. which, as its name says, expresses the agent's purpose in performing a certain action. The analysis of purpose clauses is relevant to the problem of understanding Natural Language instructions, because: ...

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