Radiographic cephalometry has been one of the most
important diagnostic tools in orthodontics, since its
introduction in the early 1930s by Broadbent in the
United States and Hofrath in Germany. Generations of
orthodontists have relied on the interpretation of these
images for their diagnosis and treatment planning as
well as for the long-term follow-up of growth and
treatment results. Also in the planning for surgical
orthodontic corrections of jaw discrepancies, lateral
and antero-posterior cephalograms have been valuable
Figure 4 Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of diabetic foot infections. (A) This patient presented with a deep foul-smelling necrotic ulcer of the heel that had been present for more than 1 month. (B) In the past, a technetium bone scan typically would be performed, but the imaging is nonspecific and many false positive results interpretative as osteomyelitis were seen. (C) White blood cell tagged imaging with indium or technetium is a more reliable technique for detecting the presence of infection.
The speculum should be carefully positioned so the entire cervix is seen. If excess
mucus or other secretions obscure the cervix, they should be gently removed using a
proctoswab without disturbing the epithelium. Small amounts of blood will not interfere
with cytologic evaluation, but large amounts, as occurs during menses, preclude
cytologic interpretation by conventional Pap smear. This is considerably less of a
problem when liquid based cytology is used.
While the detection of CoNS at sites of infection or in the bloodstream is not difficult by standard microbiologic culture methods, interpretation of these results is frequently problematic. Since these organisms are present in large numbers on the skin, they often contaminate cultures. It has been estimated that only 10–25% of blood cultures positive for CoNS reflect true bacteremia. Similar problems arise with cultures of other sites. Among the clinical findings suggestive of true bacteremia are fever, evidence of local infection (e.g.