Xem 1-20 trên 109 kết quả Interpretive semantics
  • We propose a novel method for automatically interpreting compound nouns based on a predefined set of semantic relations. First we map verb tokens in sentential contexts to a fixed set of seed verbs using WordNet::Similarity and Moby’s Thesaurus. We then match the sentences with semantic relations based on the semantics of the seed verbs and grammatical roles of the head noun and modifier. Based on the semantics of the matched sentences, we then build a classifier using TiMBL.

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  • This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science, computer vision and signal processing, cognitive science, web science, etc....

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  • This paper addresses the automatic classification of semantic relations in noun phrases based on cross-linguistic evidence from a set of five Romance languages. A set of novel semantic and contextual English– Romance NP features is derived based on empirical observations on the distribution of the syntax and meaning of noun phrases on two corpora of different genre (Europarl and CLUVI). The features were employed in a Support Vector Machines algorithm which achieved an accuracy of 77.9% (Europarl) and 74.

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  • This paper presents a new m e t h o d of analyzing Japanese noun phrases of the form N1 no 5/2. The Japanese postposition no roughly corresponds to of, but it has much broader usage. The method exploits a definition of N2 in a dictionary. For example, rugby no coach can be interpreted as a person who teaches technique in rugby. We illustrate the effectiveness of the m e t h o d by the analysis of 300 test noun phrases.

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  • It is claimed that a variety of facts concerning ellipsis, event reference, and interclausal coherence can be explained by two features of the linguistic form in question: (1) whether the form leaves behind an empty constituent in the syntax, and (2) whether the form is anaphoric in the semantics. It is proposed that these features interact with one of two types of discourse inference, namely Common Topic inference and Coherent Situation inference.

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  • This paper 1 decdbes a computational treatment of the semantics of relational nouns. It covers relational nouns such as "sister.and "commander; and focuses especially on a particular subcategory of them, called function nouns ('speed; "distance', "rating'). Relational nouns are usually viewed as either requiring non-compositional semantic interpretation, or causing an undesirable proliferation of syntactic rules. In contrast to this, we present a treatment which is both syntactically uniform and semantically compositional.

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  • The interpretation of temporal expressions in text is an important constituent task for many practical natural language processing tasks, including question-answering, information extraction and text summarisation. Although temporal expressions have long been studied in the research literature, it is only more recently, with the impetus provided by exercises like the ACE Program, that attention has been directed to broad-coverage, implemented systems. In this paper, we describe our approach to intermediate semantic representations in the interpretation of temporal expressions. ...

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  • There is little consensus on a standard experimental design for the compound interpretation task. This paper introduces wellmotivated general desiderata for semantic annotation schemes, and describes such a scheme for in-context compound annotation accompanied by detailed publicly available guidelines. Classification experiments on an open-text dataset compare favourably with previously reported results and provide a solid baseline for future research.

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  • We introduce an algorithm for scope resolution in underspecified semantic representations. Scope preferences are suggested on the basis of semantic argument structure. The major novelty of this approach is that, while maintaining an (scopally) underspecified semantic representation, we at the same time suggest a resolution possibility. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in a large-scale system and fared quite well: 28% of the utterances were ambiguous, 80% of these were correctly interpreted, leaving errors in only 5.7% of the utterance set. ...

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  • We present a technique for automatic induction of slot annotations for subcategorization frames, based on induction of hidden classes in the EM framework of statistical estimation. The models are empirically evalutated by a general decision test. Induction of slot labeling for subcategorization frames is accomplished by a further application of EM, and applied experimentally on frame observations derived from parsing large corpora. We outline an interpretation of the learned representations as theoretical-linguistic decompositional lexical entries. ...

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  • Categorial grammar has traditionally used the λ-calculus to represent meaning. We present an alternative, dependency-based perspective on linguistic meaning and situate it in the computational setting. This perspective is formalized in terms of hybrid logic and has a rich yet perspicuous propositional ontology that enables a wide variety of semantic phenomena to be represented in a single meaning formalism. Finally, we show how we can couple this formalization to Combinatory Categorial Grammar to produce interpretations compositionally....

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  • This paper shows that a first-order unificationbased semantic interpretation for various coordinate constructs is possible without an explicit use of lambda expressions if we slightly modify the standard Montagovian semantics of coordination. This modification, along with partial execution, completely eliminates the lambda reduction steps during semantic interpretation.

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  • It seems rather natural to admit that language use is governed by rules that relate signs, forms and meanings to possible intentions or possible interpretations, in function of utterance situations. Not less natural should seem the idea that the meaning of a natural language expression conveys enough material to the input of these rules, so that, given the situation of utterance, they determine the appropriate interpretation.

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  • Unification-based grammar formalisms use structures containing sets of features to describe linguistic objects. Although computational algorithms for unification of feature structures have been worked out in experimental research, these algcwithms become quite complicated, and a more precise description of feature structures is desirable. We have developed a model in which descriptions of feature structures can be regarded as logical formulas, and interpreted by sets of directed graphs which satisfy them.

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  • We report on a mechanism for semantic and pragmatic interpretation that has been designed to take advantage of the generally compositional nature of semantic analysis, without unduly constraining the order in which pragmatic decisions are made. To achieve this goal, we introduce the idea of a conditional interpretation: one that depends upon a set of assumptions about subsequent pragmatic processing. Conditional interpretations are constructed compositionally according to a set of declaratively specified interpretation rules.

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  • An approach to abductive inference developed in the TACITUS project has resulted in a dramatic simplification of how the problem of interpreting texts is conceptualized. Its use in solving the local pragmatics problems of reference, compound nominals, syntactic ambiguity, and metonymy is described and illustrated. It also suggests an elegant and thorough integration of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

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  • Certain restrictions on possible scopings of quantifiednoun phrases in natural language are usually expressed in terms of formal constraints on binding at a level of logical form. Such reliance on the form rather than the content of semantic interpretations goes against the spirit of compositionality. I will show that those scoping restrictions follow from simple and fundamental facts about functional application and abstraction, and can be expressed as constraints on the derivation of possible meanings for sentences rather than constraints of the alleged forms of those meanings. ...

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  • Generalized Vector Space Models (GVSM) extend the standard Vector Space Model (VSM) by embedding additional types of information, besides terms, in the representation of documents. An interesting type of information that can be used in such models is semantic information from word thesauri like WordNet. Previous attempts to construct GVSM reported contradicting results. The most challenging problem is to incorporate the semantic information in a theoretically sound and rigorous manner and to modify the standard interpretation of the VSM.

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  • In data-oriented language processing, an annotated language corpus is used as a stochastic grammar. The most probable analysis of a new sentence is constructed by combining fragments from the corpus in the most probable way. This approach has been successfully used for syntactic analysis, using corpora with syntactic annotations such as the Penn Tree-bank. If a corpus with semantically annotated sentences is used, the same approach can also generate the most probable semantic interpretation of an input sentence. The present paper explains this semantic interpretation method. ...

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  • We describe a method for interpreting abstract fiat syntactic representations, LFG fstructures, as underspecified semantic representations, here Underspecified Discourse Representation Structures (UDRSs). The method establishes a one-to-one correspondence between subsets of the LFG and UDRS formalisms. It provides a model theoretic interpretation and an inferential component which operates directly on underspecified representations for fstructures through the translation images of f-structures as UDRSs. ...

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