Intestinal absorption

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  • The pig faces significant biological and environmental challenges after weaning. A great deal of information is available on behavior, environment, health, and nutrition of the newly weaned pig; however, newly weaned pigs still suffer a growth lag. The pig’s small intestinal structure and function is altered during the days that follow weaning. As a consequence, the digestive and absorptive capacity of weanling pigs is decreased during this period and this may be partially responsible for the post weaning growth lag....

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  • l-Dopa has been used for Parkinson’s disease management for a long time. However, its wide variety in the rate and the extent of absorption remained challenge in designing suitable therapeutic regime. We report here a design of using d-phenylglycine to guard l-dopa for better absorption in the intestine via intestinal peptide transporter I (PepT1). Methods: d-Phenylglycine was chemically attached on l-dopa to form d-phenylglycine-l-dopa as a dipeptide prodrug of l-dopa.

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  • All this information was important for the determination of the villous height /crypt depth ratio that may indicate the proper development of intestinal epithelia regulated by probiotics. Authors also deliberate on the villous surface area parameter that may contribute to the enhancement of the intestinal absorptive area which seems to be positively regulated by probiotics in a majority of the available evidence.

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  • Th i s book wi 11 be of great interest to anyone concerned with animal feeds and feeding programs whether one is studying bovine, porcine, equine, avian or lower vertebrate (fish and eel) nutrition. This information is critical to the success of an animal feeding program. Somet imes the di fference between a successful and a failing program can be traced to mineral deficiencies which cause either abnormal growth, reduced milk production, interrupted fertility and breeding, compromised immune system integrity and/or decrement in normal hemoglobin concentration.

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  • Folates are members of the B-class of vitamins, which are required for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, and for the methylation of essential biological substances, including phospholipids, DNA, and neurotransmit-ters. Folates cannot be synthesized de novoby mammals; hence, an efficient intestinal absorption process is required.

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  • Folate plays a critical role in maintaining normal metabolic, energy, differ-entiation and growth status of all mammalian cells. The intestinal folate uptake is tightly and diversely regulated, and disturbances in folate homeo-stasis are observed in alcoholism, attributable, in part, to intestinal mal-absorption of folate.

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  • Peripherally Acting Medications Orlistat (Xenical) is a synthetic hydrogenated derivative of a naturally occurring lipase inhibitor, lipostatin, produced by the mold Streptomyces toxytricini. Orlistat is a potent, slowly reversible inhibitor of pancreatic, gastric, and carboxylester lipases and phospholipase A2, which are required for the hydrolysis of dietary fat into fatty acids and monoacylglycerols. The drug acts in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine by forming a covalent bond with the active site of these lipases.

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  • Neural Control The small intestine and colon have intrinsic and extrinsic innervation. The intrinsic innervation, also called the enteric nervous system, comprises myenteric, submucosal, and mucosal neuronal layers. The function of these layers is modulated by interneurons through the actions of neurotransmitter amines or peptides, including acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), opioids, norepinephrine, serotonin, ATP, and nitric oxide. The myenteric plexus regulates smooth-muscle function, and the submucosal plexus affects secretion, absorption, and mucosal blood flow.

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  • Energy balance and pathophysiology of weight loss. Food intake may be influenced by a wide variety of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli as well as by genetic, psychological, and social factors. Absorption may be impaired because of pancreatic insufficiency, cholestasis, celiac sprue, intestinal tumors, radiation injury, inflammatory bowel disease, infection, or medication effect. These disease processes may be manifest as changes in stool frequency and consistency. Calories may also be lost due to vomiting or diarrhea, glucosuria in diabetes mellitus, or fistulous drainage.

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  • Postmucosal Lymphatic Obstruction The pathophysiology of this condition, which is due to the rare congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia or to acquired lymphatic obstruction secondary to trauma, tumor, or infection, leads to the unique constellation of fat malabsorption with enteric losses of protein (often causing edema) and lymphocytopenia. Carbohydrate and amino acid absorption are preserved. INFLAMMATORY CAUSES Inflammatory diarrheas are generally accompanied by pain, fever, bleeding, or other manifestations of inflammation.

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  • Serum Folate This is also measured by an ELISA technique. In most laboratories, the normal range is from 11 nmol/L (2.0 µg/L) to ~82 nmol/L (15 µg/L). The serum folate level is low in all folate-deficient patients. It also reflects recent diet. Because of this, serum folate may be low before there is hematologic or biochemical evidence of deficiency.

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  • Among them Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species were most frequently cited and have been implicated in many human GIT disorders and have become commercially promoted to improve the health of the host. The mode of action of probiotics involves a mutual interaction with intestinal cells and other microflora present in the gut. In these two chapters, the influence of probiotics on digestion, absorption and barrier function, secretory functions and the postnatal maturation of intestinal mucosa are described....

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  • Tropical Sprue Nearly all patients with acute and subacute tropical sprue show malabsorption of cobalamin; this may persist as the principal abnormality in the chronic form of the disease, when the patient may present with megaloblastic anemia or neuropathy due to cobalamin deficiency. Absorption of cobalamin usually improves after antibiotic therapy and, in the early stages, folic acid therapy. Fish Tapeworm Infestation The fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium latum) lives in the small intestine of humans and accumulates cobalamin from food, rendering this unavailable for absorption.

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  • Chapter 8 What prescription medications are used for fecal incontinence and how do they work? Hyoscyamine (Levbid, NuLev), dicyclomine (Bentyl), clindium, and atropine (Lomotil); opiates such as codeine, cholestyramine (Questran). These drugs produce constipation by slowing the movement of the intestine and promoting increased fluid absorption. When the stools are dry and firm, they are less likely to leak out of the anus.

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  • The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) plays dual roles in hwnan physiology: digestion and uptake of nutrients and the more daunting task of maintaining immune homeostasis (protecting the body from potentially harmful microbes, while inducing tolerogenic responses to innocuous food, commensals and self-antigens). The unique architecture ofthe GI tract facilitates both ofthese functions; multiple levelsofinfolding results in an immense overall surface area that allows maximal nutrient absorption while housing the largest nwnber ofimmune cells in the body.

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  • Chapter 23 part c provides knowledge of the digestive system. The main contents in this chapter include all of the following: Pancreas, pancreatic juice, regulation of bile secretion, regulation of pancreatic secretion, digestion in the small intestine, requirements for digestion and absorption in the small intestine,...and other contents.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Gastrointestinal physiology" presents the following contents: Physiology of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas-"Getting By" with some help from your friends; nutrient exchange-matching digestion and absorption; salt and water-intestinal water and electrolyte transport; gastrointestinal manometry-tales of the intrepid transducer.

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