To understand a speaker's turn of a conversation, one needs to segment it into intonational phrases, clean up any speech repairs that might have occurred, and identify discourse markers. In this paper, we argue that these problems must be resolved together, and that they must be resolved early in the processing stream. We put forward a statistical language model that resolves these problems, does POS tagging, and can be used as the language model of a speech recognizer.
In this paper, we report on an effort to provide a general-purpose spoken language generation tool for Concept-to-Speech (CTS) applications by extending a widely used text generation package, FUF/SURGE, with an intonation generation component. As a first step, we applied machine learning and statistical models to learn intonation rules based on the semantic and syntactic information typically represented in FUF/SURGE at the sentence level. The results of this study are a set of intonation rules learned automatically which can be directly implemented in our intonation generation component.
The paper describes an interface between generator and synthesizer of the German language concept-to-speech system VieCtoS. It discusses phenomena in German intonation that depend on the interaction between grammatical dependencies (projection of information structure into syntax) and prosodic context (performancerelated modifications to intonation patterns). Phonological processing in our system comprises segmental as well as suprasegmental dimensions such as syllabification, modification of word stress positions, and a symbolic encoding of intonation. ...
Determining the relationship between the intonational characteristics of an utterance and other features inferable from its text is important both for speech recognition and for speech synthesis. This work investigates the use of text analysis in predicting the location of intonational phrase boundaries in natural speech, through analyzing 298 utterances from the DARPA Air Travel Information Service database. For statistical modeling, we employ Classification and Regression Tree (CART) techniques. ...
Recent studies on the analysis of intonational function examine a r a n ~ of materials from cue phrases in monologue (Litman and Hirschberg, 1990) and dialogue (Hirschberg and Litman, 1987; Hockey, 1991) to longer utterances in both monologue and dialogue (McLemore, 1991). Results match specific intonational tunes to certain discourse functions which are more or less well defined. Although these results make a convincing case that intonation does signal a change in discourse structure, the specification of discourse function remains vague. ...
This paper is a progress report on a project in linguistically based automatic speech recognition, The domain of this project is English intonation. The system I will describe analyzes fundamental frequency contours (F0 contours) of speech in terms of the theory of melody laid out in Pierrehumbert (1980). Experiments discussed in Liberman and Pierrehumbert (1983) support the assumptions made about intonational phonetics, and an F0 synthesis program based on a precursor to the present theory is described in Pierrehumbert (1981). ...
We propose a mapping between prosodic phenomena and semantico-pragmatic effects based upon the hypothesis t h a t intonation conveys information about the intentional as well as the attentional s t r u c t u r e of discourse.
A computer program for synthesizing Japanese fundamental frequency contours implements our theory of Japanese intonation. This theory provides a complete qualitative description of the known characteristics of Japanese intonation, as well as a quantitative model of tone-scaling and timing precise enough to translate straightforwardly into a computational algorithm. An important aspect of the description is that various features of the intonation pattern are designated to be phonological properties of different types of phrasal units in a hierarchical organization.
Cue phrases are words and phrases such as now and by the way which m a y be used to convey explicit information about the structure of a discourse. However, while cue phrases may convey discourse structure, each m a y also be used to different effect. The question of h o w speakers and hearers distinguish between such uses of cue phrases has not been addressed in discourse studies to date. Based on a study of now in natural recorded discourse, we propose that cue and non-cue usage can be distinguished intonationally, on the basis of phrasing and...
cannot be correctly produced by the text to speech system. To alleviate some of these problems, we modified Direction Assistance to make both attentional and intentional information about the route description available for the assignment of intonational features. With this information, we generate spoken directions using the Bell Labo~ ratories Text-to-Speech System in which pitch range, accent placement, phrasing, and tune can be varied to communicate attentional and intentional structure. ...
The structure imposed upon spoken sentences by intonation seems frequently to be orthogohal to their traditional surface-syntactic structure. However, the notion of "intonational structure" as formulated by Pierrehumbert, Selkirk, and others, can be subsumed under a rather different notion of syntactic surface structure that emerges from a theory of grammar based on a "Combinatory" extension to Categorial Gram, mar.
Our goal is to improve the contextual appropriateness of spoken output in a dialogue system. We explore the use of the information state to determine the information structure of system utterances. We concentrate on the realization of information structure by intonation. We present the results of evaluating the contextual appropriateness of varied system output produced with a text-to-speech synthesis system that supports intonation annotation.
We demonstrate the production of spoken output with contextually appropriate intonation in the information-state based dialogue system GoDiS. We exploit the context representation in the information state to determine the information structure of system utterances, which we use to control the intonation of synthesized spoken output.
One source of unnaturalness in the output of text-to-speech systems stems from the involvement of algorithmically generated default intonation contours, applied under minimal control from syntax and semantics. It is a tribute both to the resilience of human language understanding and to the ingenuity of the inventors of these algorithms that the results are as intelligible as they are. However, the result is very frequently unnatural, and may on occasion mislead the hearer.
Intonation is important for learners of English because even with satisfactory consonants and vowels, a phrase/sentence with an incorrect intonation contour may change the intended meaning of the whole utterance.
Abstract. Speaking English as well as native English speaking people is the ambition of all English
learners.However, this is beyond the power of Vietnamese learners.Whereas we cannot speak English as well as the American or the British, we can speak a universal acceptable English, an English with its owm features in pronunciation. These features are; Word stress and sentence stress. Intonation with rising and falling. Word linking in connected speech.
Strong forms and weak forms in pronunciation of function words
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writting from the publisher.Accent is a combination of three main components: intonation (speech music), liaisons (word connections), and pronunciation (the spoken sounds of vowels, consonants, and combinations). As you go along, you'll notice that...
Chìa khóa vàng để sở hữu ngữ điệu tiếng anh chuẩn
Ngữ điệu được xem như là một tiêu chí cốt lõi (core criteria) để đánh giá khả năng nói của người sử dụng và người học tiếng Anh. Nhưng tại sao nó lại đóng vai trò quan trọng như vậy? Ngữ điệu (Intonation) được hiểu đơn giản là sự lên và xuống của giọng nói.
What Is Accent?
Accent is a combination of three main components: intonation (speech music), liaisons (word
connections), and pronunciation (the spoken sounds of vowels, consonants, and combinations). As
you go along, you'll notice that you're being asked to look at accent in a different way. You'll also
realize that the grammar you studied before and this accent you're studying now are completely
Part of the difference is that grammar and vocabulary are systematic and structured— the letter of
What's different about the THIRD edition of New Headway Pre-Inter mediate ? 90% new texts and topics ; Streamlined syllabus ; Integrated writing syllabus and pairwork activities ; Music of English boxes focusing on stress and intonation ; Streamlined Grammar Reference with integrated practice exercises ; Fresh new design ; Interactive practice CD-ROM with dictation and video excerpts.