Chapter 2 - Investigators, the investigative process, and the crime scene. When you finish this chapter, you should: Understand the role of the investigator and the skills and qualities he or she must possess, discuss the major events in the investigation of a crime, explain the seven major steps in a preliminary investigation, describe activities conducted in a follow-up investigation,...
In this valuable book, The State of the People, the authors ask a pertinent question - did the transition to democracy improve the state of the South African people? It is the sheer scale of the transition in South Africa that provides a unique opportunity to investigate processes of transition and it was decided that a longitudinal and multi-disciplinary study be launched to register the changes in political opinion, attitude and behaviour of South Africans during the period 1994 to 2000.
Tools to Investigate Improvement Opportunities.
We have discussed the assessment, plotting, and analysis of both PD and PP maturity level data. We know how to target those knowledge areas that should be further investigated for improvement opportunities. We have suggested a few approaches for ranking improvement opportunities. In this chapter we look under the hood at a knowledge area or individual process within a knowledge area to analyze the PD or PP performance to define potential areas for improvement initiatives.
The research “An investigation into the impact of extrinsic motivation on the process of learning English of students at some high schools in Hue” is performed with an eye to providing high school teachers and students with a deep, comprehensible view of the role as well as the positive and negative effects of extrinsic motivation on the process of learning English of high school students.
This paper presents a comparative study of five parameter estimation algorithms on four NLP tasks. Three of the five algorithms are well-known in the computational linguistics community: Maximum Entropy (ME) estimation with L2 regularization, the Averaged Perceptron (AP), and Boosting. We also investigate ME estimation with L1 regularization using a novel optimization algorithm, and BLasso, which is a version of Boosting with Lasso (L1) regularization. We first investigate all of our estimators on two re-ranking tasks: a parse selection task and a language model (LM) adaptation task. ...
Conversation between two people is usually of MIXED-INITIATIVE, with CONTROL over the conversation being transferred from one person to another. We apply a set of rules for the transfer of control to 4 sets of dialogues consisting of a total of 1862 turns. The application of the control rules lets us derive domain-independent discourse structures. The derived structures indicate that initiative plays a role in the structuring of discourse.
In this paper we propose a methodology for investigating the relationship between architectures of natural language generation (NLG) systems and stylistic properties of texts. Biber's (1988) methodology is used to obtain both the characterisation of style of our corpus and the division of the corpus into sets of linguistically similar texts. These sets will be used for studying the architectural aspects.
In response to a request from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National
Research Council (NRC) established the Committee on Principal-Investigator-Led Missions in the Space
Sciences in the summer of 2004 to conduct a study of Principal-Investigator (PI)-led missions in the space
sciences. (Appendix A includes brief biographies of the committee members and staff.
In this note we consider the filtering problem for financial volatility that is an Ornstein-Ulhenbeck process from point process observation. This problem is investigated for a Markov-Feller process of which the Ornstein-Ulhenbeck process is a particular case.
The analysis of reading times can provide insights into the processes that underlie language comprehension, with longer reading times indicating greater cognitive load. There is evidence that the language processor is highly predictive, such that prior context allows upcoming linguistic material to be anticipated. Previous work has investigated the contributions of semantic and syntactic contexts in isolation, essentially treating them as independent factors.
Taking this route sets up a dual goal: (a) from the generic paraphrasing perspective - an objective evaluation of paraphrase acquisition performance on a concrete application dataset, as well as identifying the additional mechanisms needed to match paraphrases in texts; (b) from the RE perspective investigating the feasibility and performance of a generic paraphrase-based approach for RE. Our conﬁguration assumes a set of entailing templates (non-symmetric “paraphrases”) for the target relation.
Chapter 4 - Interviewing and interrogation. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Understand the differences and similarities between interviews and interrogation, outline the steps in preparing for an interview and an interrogation, assess the challenges in relying on eyewitness identification, identify interviewing processes and techniques,...
This chapter examines several aspects of the field note and report writing process. After discussing field notes and the basic and primary questions that need to be asked in an investigation, it addresses the importance of completing well-prepared incident/offense reports. Incident report formats vary among law enforcement agencies.
This paper investigates two elements of Maximum Entropy tagging: the use of a correction feature in the Generalised Iterative Scaling (Gis) estimation algorithm, and techniques for model smoothing. We show analytically and empirically that the correction feature, assumed to be required for the correctness of GIS, is unnecessary. We also explore the use of a Gaussian prior and a simple cutoff for smoothing. The experiments are performed with two tagsets: the standard Penn Treebank POS tagset and the larger set of lexical types from Combinatory Categorial Grammar. ...
Learning objectives of this chapter include: Distinguish between detention, arrest, and charging; explain the benefit of a police officer=s making an arrest under the authority of a warrant; define and describe probable cause; discuss the risk factors involved in making a premature arrest; briefly outline the steps in a trial process; assess the importance of a criminal investigator’s knowing the rules of evidence;…
Millions of dollars have been spent
investigating and pursuing ways to grow
sales, and no wonder; after all, sales are
the lifeblood of any organization. Yet only a
handful of companies have been able to grow
their sales steadily not just in good times, but in
lean times, too, and in the face of ferocious
competition. A careful study of the vast majority
of companies that have been less successful than
these few superstars shows that they fall prey to
a number of common mistakes.
MTMF combines the best parts of the Linear Spectral Mixing model and the statistical
Matched Filter model while avoiding the drawbacks of each parent method (Boardman,
1998). It is a useful Matched Filter method without knowing all the possible endmembers in
a landscape especially in case of subtle, sub-pixel occurrences. Firstly, pixel spectra and
endmember spectra require a minimum noise fraction (MNF) (Green et al., 1988, Boardman,
1993) transformation. MNF reduces and separates an image into its most dimensional and
A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a site investigation of soil and bedrock on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. Examining of soil properties, especially in shear stress, is indispensable to understanding of the area in or on which the construction will take place. There are two main kinds of the test: direct shear test and triaxial test.
Thomas Ahrens Ph.D., is a Senior Lecturer in Accounting at the London School of
Economics where he has been working since 1996. His research is mostly qualitative.
It is broadly concerned with accounting and organisational process. Thomas has
compared management accounting practices in contemporary British and German firms
and studied the uses of performance measurement systems in a large U.K. restaurant
chain. He has also written on comparative and case study research in accounting.
Thomas’ latest research project is investigating performance measurement in British and