Investment liberalization

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  • The three chapters of this report cover an assessment on the impacts of China ’s accession to the WTO (World Trade Organization), an analysis on Free Trade Areas in China, Japan and Korea, and an analysis on the perspectives and issues of Japanese and Korean direct investment in China, with a focus on technology transfer. These three areas represent the major issues related to the trend toward liberalized trade and investment in Northeast Asia.

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  • The role of interest rate in the determination of investment and, hence economic growth, has been a matter of controversy over a long period of time. Yet, what constitutes an appropriate interest rate policy still remains to be a puzzling question. Until the early 1970s, the main line of argument was that because the interest rate represents the cost of capital, low interest rates will encourage the acquisition of physical capital (investment) and promotes economic growth. Thus, during that era, the policy of low real interest rate was adopted by ...

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  • This book has been in the making since 2002, when the Ford Foundation generously gave a grant to the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) for a project to explore the linkages between trade liberalization, women’s employment, and reproductive health and rights at the macro- and micro-levels.

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  • Acquisition of stocks or shares of Korean corporations (Article 2.(1).4.(a) of the Foreign Investment Promotion Act, FIPA) ◦A foreign national purchasing stocks or shares of a Korean corporation (including a Korean corporation in the process of incorporation. Hereinafter the same shall apply) or a company run by a Korean national, for the purpose of establishing a continuous economic relationship with and participating in the management of the said Korean corporation or company.

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  • This paper documents evidence of business cycle synchronization in selected Asia Pacific countries in the 1990s. We explain business cycle synchronization by the channel of international capital flows. Using the VAR method, we find that most Asian countries experience boom-bust cycles following capital inflows, where the boom in output is mostly driven by consumption and investment. Empirical evidence shows that capital flows in the region are highly correlated, which supports the conclusion that capital market liberalization has contributed to business cycle synchronization in Asia.

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  • 8 International Economics: Mutual Benefit or Imperialism? Mainstream economics emphasizes the positive possibilities of international trade and investment to such an extent that most economists have difficulty imagining how more free trade, more international lending

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  • fast pace. As part of the structural adjustment programmes of the late 1980s and early 1990s Bangladesh undertook a number of initiatives towards trade liberalisation and trade promotion to stimulate exports and encourage investment in export-oriented activities. The major objective of these reforms was removal of anti-export bias, introduction of incentives for exports and facilitation of participation in global labour market.

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  • Future historians may well look upon the years 1978–80 as a revolutionary turning-point in the world’s social and economic history. In 1978, Deng Xiaoping took the first momentous steps towards the liberalization of a communist-ruled economy in a country that accounted for a fifth of the world’s population. The path that Deng defined was to transform China in two decades from a closed backwater to an open centre of capitalist dynamism with sustained growth rates unparalleled in human history....

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  • Multinationals, as most people would know, recognize, admire, fear, and criticize, have been variously characterized for more than three decades. In the 1970s, an American, a British, or a European company that had subsidiaries in two or more countries was called a multinational corporation. In the 1980s, considering the history of foreign investment, a variety of nonmanufacturing companies—such as banks, insurance companies, and trading companies— also came to be recognized as multinational companies....

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  • In recent decades a significant part of the land use changes caused by the population expansion in Turkish cities has not followed an urban development plan but was rather driven by unlicensed build- ing activities. 5 As an example, the built-up area in the province of Istanbul increased by more than 40% between 1990 and 2005. New settlements were typically erected on public land near water bodies and in areas that had been made more accessible by new trans- portation routes like the Transit European Motorway, the E-5 and the second Bosphorus Bridge.

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  • This monograph is about managing our financial wealth in the context of having both human and financial capital. The portfolio that works best tends to hold stocks and bonds as well as insurance products. We are attempting to put these decisions together in a single framework. Thus, we are trying to provide a theoretical foundation—a framework—and practical solutions for developing investment advice for individual investors throughout their lives.

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  • I show that, just as investment bankers are key drivers of financial markets, shocks in financial markets have important and lasting effects on the careers of investment bankers. Specifically, using data from a 1996 and 1998 survey of several thousand Stanford MBAs, I find that stock market conditions while MBA students are in school have a large effect on whether they go directly into investment banking upon graduation. This effect of themarkets on initialMBA placement turns out to be a lasting determinant of career choice and earnings....

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  • The large-scale rural farms producing on a commercial basis in Pakistan are among the lowest cost farms in the world, driven by low cost of labor and feed. This has been reported in IFCN9 2004. While still limited in number, the big commercial farms of Pakistan have major economic benefits. Existing commercial farms need to boost their current level of mechanization, automation and refrigeration (cold chains), in order to be more productive.

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  • The liberalization of markets has lead to record levels of international investments. Icon Group’s primary mission is to assist international managers to better plan and implement strategies in a global economy. It does so by providing various specialized industry reports, databases, publications and services to its clients. This report is one of many published by Icon Group Ltd. to assist executives and planners in monitoring and analyzing world markets. In addition to industry-specific studies, Icon Group Ltd.

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  • Chapter 11 - The many forms of international investment. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Detail the principal types of international investment flows and their recent growth, discuss the reasons why firms operate in more than one country and become MNEs, show how portfolio investment has grown in recent decades as governments liberalized investment flows and financial markets have developed,...

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  • C H A P T E R T E N Housing Policy: LowIncome Households in France 10.1 INTRODUCTION Housing consumption and investment remain subsidized even in the most liberal countries. In 2001, the United States spent 1.54 percent of GDP, and France 1.74 percent, on public aid to housing.

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  • Tax free acquisition A merger or consolidation in which 1) the acquirer's tax basis in each asset whose ownership is transferred in the transaction is generally the same as the acquiree's, and 2) each seller who receives only stock does not have to pay any tax on the gain he realizes until the shares are sold. Tax haven A nation with a moderate level of taxation and/or liberal tax incentives for undertaking specific activities such as exporting or investing. Tax Reform Act of 1986 A 1986 law involving a major overhaul of the U.S. tax code. Tax shield The reduction in...

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  • Regulation of the telecommunications industry has traditionally focused on the supply side of the industry, chiefl y the retail segment of the market. Since liberalization of the industry has begun, regulation has gradually shifted to the wholesale segment of the market. The regulatory agencies have intervened to regulate access and facilitate entry and, hopefully, investment in infrastructure. This asymmetric regulation has had mixed results.

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  • The social democratic political economies showed higher levels of union density, that is, a greater propor- tion of workers belonging to organised labour unions, social security expenditures, and public employment levels. They had the largest public expenditure in health care from 1960 to 1990, and greatest health care coverage of citizens. These nations instituted full employment strategies, achieved high rates of female employment, and showed the lowest degree of income inequality and poverty rates.

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  • Moreover, the concept of market segmentation is now becoming relevant in countries that have suffered from a lot of problems and shortages in the past, but are now ex- periencing an economic development equal to that of the western countries after World War II. In particular, due to the economic liberalization processes and the on- going opening of the Chinese economy for foreign trade and investment, which hav e been carried out since 19809 , this applies to the Peoples Republic of China.

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