Irreversible processes

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  • Since a falling apple around 1665 worked its magic in the imaginative mind of a youthful farmer at Woolsthorpe in Lincolnshire, the meaning of the word action and of the equal and opposite reaction, has been investigated in science and technology. More than 300 years ago this irreversible process had consequences that led to the development of a theory of gravitation still used by space agencies even today.

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  • The relational model is one of many ways of modeling data from the real world. The modeling process starts with the identification of the things in the real world that you are modeling. These real world things are called entities. If you were creating a database to catalog your music library, the entities would be things like compact disc, song, band, record label, and so on. Entities do not need to be tangible things; they can also be conceptual things like a genre or a concert.

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  • In addition to redefi ning the calculation of capital requirements and establish- ing a supervisory review process under Pillars 1 and 2, Basel II imposes new and enhanced disclosure obligations on credit institutions under its third pillar. The purpose of Pillar 3 is to ensure greater transparency in terms of banks’ activities and risk strategies, as well as to enhance comparability across credit institutions – which is all in the interests of market participants.

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  • The volume includes Onsager's previously unpublished PhD thesis, a biography by H C Longuet-Higgins and M E Fisher, an autobiographical commentary, selected photographs, and a list of Onsager discussion remarks in print. Onsager's scientific achievements were characterized by deep insights into the natural sciences.

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  • Transportation of species to areas outside their native ranges has been a feature of human culture for millennia. During this time such activities have largely been viewed as beneficial or inconsequential. However, it has become increasingly clear that human-caused introductions of alien biota are an ecological disruption whose consequences rival those of better-known insults like chemical pollution, habitat loss, and climate change. Indeed, the irreversible nature of most alien-species introductions makes them less prone to correction than many other ecological problems.

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  • Limited proteolysis is a highly specific irreversible process, which can serve to initiate physiological function by con-verting a precursor protein into a biologically active form. When the activating enzyme and the activated enzyme coincide, the process is an autocatalytic zymogen activation (i.e. reactions inwhich the zymogens serves as a substrate for the corresponding active enzyme). The activity of proteases is frequently regulated by the binding of specific protease inhibitors.

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  • Reproductive Health (RH) is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being (not merely the absence of disease and infirmity) in all matters relating to the reproduc- tive system and its functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so.

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  • Recall of family history is often inaccurate. This is especially so when the history is remote and families become more dispersed geographically. It can be helpful to ask patients to fill out family history forms before or after their visits, as this provides them with an opportunity to contact relatives. Attempts should be made to confirm the illnesses reported in the family history before making important and, in certain circumstances, irreversible management decisions.

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  • It would seem that an introduction to oxygen is unnecessary, for we deal with it and depend upon it every moment of our lives. Oxygen is to us the essential stuff of the air we breathe. We are aerobic animals who obtain energy by oxidizing foodstuffs. As such, we are wholly dependent on oxygen for life – go without it for a couple of minutes and we panic and may even suffer irreversible brain damage. In a few more minutes, we perish. Animal metabolism depends upon oxygen for almost all of its energy-generating processes. Yet this was not always so. Early in the history of the Earth,...

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  • Disulfiram has been used for decades to treat alcoholism. Its therapeutic effect is thought to be mediated by the irreversible inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recent reports have indicated new therapeutic uses of disulfiram, in particular in human cancers. Although the biochemical mech-anisms that underlie these effects remain largely unknown, certain enzymes involved in cancer processes have been reported to be targeted by disulfi-ram.

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  • Inhibition of Protein Synthesis Most of the antibacterial agents that inhibit protein synthesis interact with the bacterial ribosome. The difference between the composition of bacterial and mammalian ribosomes gives these compounds their selectivity. Aminoglycosides Aminoglycosides (gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, streptomycin, neomycin, and amikacin) are a group of structurally related compounds containing three linked hexose sugars. They exert a bactericidal effect by binding irreversibly to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome and blocking initiation of protein synthesis.

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  • The kinetics of the reversible thermal unfolding, irreversible thermal unfolding, and reductive unfolding processes of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) were investi-gated in NaCl/Pi solutions. Image parameters including Shannon entropy, Hamming distance, mutual information and correlation coefficient were used in the analysis of the CD and 1D NMR spectra. The irreversible thermal unfolding transition of RNase A was not a cooperative process, pretransitional structure changes occur before the main thermal denaturation....

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  • Based on irreversible thermodynamics, a new approach to study sorption in polymer has been proposed [1]. This treatment gives a standpoint different from the existing sorption models [2 - 9] not only in interpretation and nature, but also in analytical expression. Moreover, the model also accounts for diffusion and the other internal processes stimulated by sorption such as swelling, plasticization, crystallization etc. Some experimental results of fluid sorption in polymer have been interpreted by this model.

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  • In this chapter, students will be able to understand: What are the processes of development? Is cell differentiation irreversible? What is the role of gene expression in cell differentiation? How is cell fate determined? How does gene expression determine pattern formation?

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