TB spreads through the air from one person to another. The bacteria are put into the air
when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs or sneezes. People
nearby may breathe in these bacteria and get infected. When a person breathes in TB
bacteria, which may settle in the lungs and begin to grow. From there, they can move
through the blood to other parts of the body, such as the kidney, spine, and brain. TB in the
lungs or throat can be infectious. This means that the bacteria can spread to other people. TB...
The conserved Rho-type GTPase Cdc42p is a key regulator of signal trans-duction and polarity in eukaryotic cells. In the yeastSaccharomyces cerevi-siae, Cdc42p promotes polarized growth through the p21-activated kinases
Ste20p and Cla4p. Previously, we demonstrated that Ste20p forms a com-plex with Erg4p, Cbr1p and Ncp1p, which all catalyze important steps in
PI3K is a heterodimeric lipid kinase that catalyses the conversion of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3), which acts as a plasma membrane docking site for proteins that contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. These include the serine/threonine kinases Akt and PDK1 that are key downstream effectors of PI3K action (Fig. 80-2). The PI3K pathway is activated in 30–40% of human cancers and is thought to play a critical role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, growth, and glucose utilization.