The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol, described in RFC 2409, is a key
management protocol standard which is used in conjunction with the IPsec
standard. IPsec can be configured without IKE, but IKE enhances IPsec by
providing additional features, flexibility, and ease of configuration for the IPsec
As mentioned in the T_IPsec chapter, IPsec security associations (SAs) must exist
in order for IPsec to protect network traffic. IKE manages those SAs on behalf of
IPsec, and automatically negotiates protection policies between IPsec peers. ...
A colleague once asked if I could help him understand the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol . . . without digging through the math. My answer was, “Yes, I can, but not easily.” Doing so requires a few diagrams because, in this particular case, a picture is worth several complex equations!
First things first. What is Diffie-Hellman (DH), and why should you care? DH is a mathematical algorithm that allows two computers to generate an identical shared secret on both systems, even though those systems may never have communicated with each other before.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Constructing UC Secure and Constant-Round Group Key Exchange Protocols via Secret Sharing
OpenVPN is an open source software application that implements virtual private network (VPN) techniques for creating secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections in routed or bridged configurations and remote access facilities. It uses a custom security protocol that utilizes SSL/TLS for key exchange. It is capable of traversing network address translators (NATs) and firewalls. It was written by James Yonan and is published under the GNU General Public License (GPL)
In a more challenging, mature, and increasingly transparent market, this is
unlikely to continue to be the case as it is increasingly possible to assembl
performance records. Investors are becoming more assertive, and
regulations/directives are playing an increasingly important role in the
need for disclosure and accountability. The question of how manager
performance is rewarded is therefore a key issue for the industry: do
performance-related fees, for example, adequately distinguish between
risk taking (higher beta) and genuine skill/out-performance (alpha)? ...
This document serves as a design guide for those intending to deploy a site-to-site VPN based on IP
Security (IPsec). The designs presented in this document focus on Cisco IOS VPN router platforms.
The primary topology described in this document is a hub-and-spoke design, where the primary
enterprise resources are located in a large central site, with a number of smaller sites or branch offices
connected directly to the central site over a VPN. A high-level diagram of this topology is shown in
In cryptography, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack in which
an attacker is able to read, insert and modify at will, messages between two
parties without either party knowing that the link between them has been
compromised. The attacker must be able to observe and intercept messages
going between the two victims. The MITM attack can work against publickey
cryptography and is also particularly applicable to the original Diffie-
Hellman key exchange protocol, when used without authentication....
Trong phần I tôi đã giới thiệu với các bạn các bước cấu hình - Tạo một Web Site Certificate tới OWA Web site. - Export OWA Web Site Certificate sử dụng Private Key. - Cấu hình OWA Site sử dụng phương thức mã hoá SSL và Basic Authentication. - Import OWA Web Site Certificate vào Certificate Store trên máy ISA. Phần II của bài này tôi xin tiếp tục hướng dẫn với các bạn chi tiết các bước cấu hình tiếp theo. - Sử dụng Outlook Web Access Publishing Winzard và sửa HOSTS file trên ISA để truy vấn...
The Foreign Exchange (FOREX) market is a cash (or “spot”) interbank market established in 1971 when floating exchange rates began to materialize. This market is the arena in which the currency of one country is exchanged for those of another and where settlements for international business are made.
The literature of cryptography has a curious history. Secrecy, of course, has
always played a central role, but until the First World War, important
developments appeared in print in a more or less timely fashion and the field
moved forward in much the same way as other specialized disciplines. As late
as 1918, one of the most influential cryptanalytic papers of the twentieth
century, William F. Friedman’s monograph The Index of Coincidence and Its
Applications in Cryptography, appeared as a research report of the private
Riverbank Laboratories .
What Is Needed to Build a VPN? Overlay and Peer-to-Peer VPN Architecture VPN Topologies Characteristics of a Secure VPNs VPN Security: Encapsulation VPN Security: IPsec and GRE VPN Security: Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms Symmetric Encryption Algorithms Asymetric Encryption Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Data Integrity VPN Security: Authentication
If a Security Association (SA) was previously established with Internet Key Exchange (IKE), what
will the following command do on the router?
A. It clears the SA symmetric key.
B. It clears the SA authentication key.
C. It deletes SA from the SA database.
D. It re-initializes every peer’s secret key.
Another notable increase occurred in the forward-rate agreement (FRA) usage. FRA
is a contract that determines the rate of interest, or currency exchange rate, to be paid or
received on an obligation beginning at some future date. At the end of 1996, 9.02 percent of
the sample banks report using FRAs. By the end of 2004, the percentage using FRAs more
than doubled. While the percentage of banks participating in the swaps and forwards
increased over the sample period, the proportion of banks using interest-rate options fell.
Federal funds are the heart of the money market in the sense that they are the core of the overnight market
for credit in the United States. Moreover, current and expected interest rates on federal funds are the basic
rates to which all other money market rates are anchored. Understanding the federal funds market requires,
above all, recognizing that its general character has been shaped by Federal Reserve policy. From the
beginning, Federal Reserve regulatory rulings have encouraged the market's growth.
However, economic downturns can have a detrimental effect on the creation of new, innovative
businesses when access to financing dries up. The key role of finance in the development of small
and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is illustrated by Finland (Figure 3) where the peak in financial
constraints coincided closely with the deep recession of the early 1990s and a downturn in self-
employed. Economic growth suffers doubly in the long term since innovative new firms exert
competitive pressure on established firms pushing them to innovate.
An imposing barrier to entry for current plant-derived materials, and the issue
most often debated, is the competitive cost situation. In many cases, the current
cost of using plant-based materials is viewed as being relatively high, and not
competitive with hydrocarbon-based processes. However, the cost-competitive
situation contains several highly complex interactions among the key factors:
value of product, cost of materials, volume of throughput, degree of processing
required, and performance of the building blocks used.