Two plasma kallikrein–kinin system inhibitors in the salivary glands of the
kissing bugTriatoma infestans, designated triafestin-1 and triafestin-2, have
been identified and characterized. Reconstitution experiments showed that
triafestin-1 and triafestin-2 inhibit the activation of the kallikrein–kinin sys-tem by inhibiting the reciprocal activation of factor XII and prekallikrein,
and subsequent release of bradykinin.
Inhibitors of the RAA System
lasting effect than does captopril. Indications are hypertension and cardiac failure. Lowering of an elevated blood pressure is predominantly brought about by diminished production of angiotensin II. Impaired degradation of kinins that exert vasodilating actions may contribute to the effect. In heart failure, cardiac output rises again because ventricular afterload diminishes due to a fall in peripheral resistance.
I am grateful to the publishers for the invitation
to produce a second edition of Applied Basic
Science for Basic Surgical Training. Despite the
considerable changes to education and examination,
the requirement of any future surgeon to possess
a comprehensive knowledge of the applied basic
sciences remains the core of surgical training; a fact
that is universally acknowledged by the organisations
most closely involved in the shaping of the surgical