Evolution of global technologies has prompted increasing complexity of applications
developed in both, the industry and the scientific research fields. These complexities
are generally attributed to nonlinearities, poorly defined dynamics and absence of
apriori information about the systems. Imprecision, uncertainties and vagueness in
information about the system are also playing vital roles in enhancing the complexity
We have developed an approach to natural language processing in which the natural language processor is viewed as a knowledge-based system whose knowledge is about the meanings of the utterances of its language. The approach is orzented around the phrase rather than the word as the basic unit. We believe that this p a r a d i ~ for language processing not only extends the capabilities of other natural language systems, but handles those tasks that previous systems could perform in e more systematic and extensible manner. ...
A computer system is being developed to handle the acquisition, representation, and use of linguistic knowledge. The computer system is rule-based and utilizes a semantic network for knowledge storage and representation. In order to facilitate the interaction between user and system, input of linguistic knowledge and computer responses are in natural language. Knowledge of various types can be entered and utilized: syntactic and semantic; assertions and rules.
In order to represent speech acts, in a multi-agent context, we choose a knowledge representation based on the modal logic of knowledge KT4 which is defined by Sato. Such a formalism allows us to reason about knowledge and represent knowledge about knowledge, the notions of truth value and of definite reference.
An educational divide reigns supreme in Bangladesh giving way to socio-economic inequality, reflecting
the nature of the statecraft, the contestations within the socio-economic fabric, and the level of exercise
of rights by the populace. Thus, the present anthology investigates into role of education in nation building
and linkages with knowledge and empowerment. Given the current socio-economic and political transition
in Bangladesh, such a publication of collections is timely and fundamental....
The science of ecology and the practice of management are critical to
our understanding of the Earth’s ecosystems and our efforts to conserve
them. This book attempts to bridge the gap between ecology and natural
resource management and, in particular, focuses on the discipline of
plant ecology as a foundation for vegetation and wildlife management.
It describes how concepts and approaches used by ecologists to study
communities and ecosystems can be applied to their management. Guy
The book is the outcome of a research project ‘Management of
Knowledge System in Natural Resources: Exploring Policy and
Institutional Framework in Nepal’ undertaken by ForestAction Nepal
with support from the International Development Research Centre
(IDRC), Canada. When we completed the research project with a set
of case studies and a review of theories related to knowledge systems
and governance and shared the findings with a network of readers, we
were excited to get very encouraging feedback....
With growth and development rapidly in Vietnam, is a danger of overuse and
poor management of natural resources, thus affecting sustainable development.
Level of understanding, knowledge and use of the principles of natural resources
management (NRE) is limited to Vietnam's agriculture. Design results
project is to start with the concept of resource management is used in many
organizations in Vietnam (Universities, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and system extensions) and
enhanced to provide the set of policy knowledge, and advice to farmers in
Scientific and technological advances have had profound effects on human life.
In the 19th century, most families could expect to lose one or more children to
disease. Today, in the United States and other developed countries, the death
of a child from disease is uncommon. Every day we rely on technologies made
possible through the application of scientific knowledge and processes.
From before the time Raven stole the sun and shed light on the world below,
the Gitxaal /
a people have lived in their territories along the north coast of
British Columbia. Gitxaal /
a laws (Ayaawk) and history (Adaawk) describe in
precise detail the relationships of trust, honor, and respect that are appro-
priate for the well-being and continuance of the people and, as important-
ly, define the rights of ownership over land, sea, and resources within the
With growth and development rapidly in Vietnam, there is a risk of abuse and mismanagement of natural resources, thus affecting sustainable development. Level of understanding, knowledge and use of economic principles of natural resources (NRE) and management is limited in Vietnamese agriculture Nam.
The essays collected in this volume represent work carried out over a
period of more than ten years on a variety of problems in artificial intelligence,
the philosophy of mind and language, and natural-language
semantics, addressed from a perspective that takes as central the use of
formal logic and the explicit representation of knowledge.
After attending lectures, reading the text and working assigned problems related to this chapter, students will have acquired the following knowledge and abilities: Given the IUPAC name for a compound containing an amine functional group, be able to draw its structure; know the orbital mechanism for inversion at a pyramidal amine nitrogen; know how the relative electronegativity of N vs. O affects the boiling point, solubility, and basicity of amines vs. alcohols;...
China's Guangzhou Development District (GDD) will be the site of the new innovation cluster known as Sino-Singapore Guangzhou Knowledge City. Jointly developed by GDD and Singbridge of Singapore, Knowledge City will be an environmentally and technologically advanced city that hosts innovative
For a long time economists have warned that abundant natural resources are bad for economic development because their exploitation stunts manufacturing exports, favours rent-seeking activities by politically well-connected people, and generally leads to unsustainable policies for which, as so often, the poor end up paying the price with lost growth and opportunity. But over the last few years the so-called resource curse has been revisited as historically uninformed, theoretically unsatisfactory, empirically incorrect, and largely useless for development policy....
Vietnam has been reforming its forest management in favour of household and
local organization (Barney 2005). The government increasingly gives local people
the right to manage the forests. Unfortunately, in this changing environment,
recognition of local people’s rights is still limited and local knowledge and
perspectives are rarely taken into account by the state institutions implementing
land titling and decentralization. The challenge is to better inform each stakeholder
on the perspectives of people living in and near the forest on the natural resources
China's Guangzhou Development District (GDD) will be the site of the new innovation cluster known as Sino-Singapore Guangzhou Knowledge City. Jointly developed by GDD and Singbridge of Singapore, Knowledge City will be a new environmentally and technologically advanced city that hosts innovative
In this review, we describe the role of a small ubiquitin-like protein modi-fier (SUMO)-conjugating protein, Ubc9, in synaptonemal complex forma-tion during meiosis in a basidiomycete, Coprinus cinereus. Because its
meiotic cell cycle is long and naturally synchronous, it is suitable for
molecular biological, biochemical and genetic studies of meiotic prophase
Chapter 41 provides knowledge of history and nature of corporations. After completing this unit, you should be able to: Discuss the history of corporations, recognize the types of corporations, understand state regulation of foreign and alien corporations, describe how to pierce the corporate veil.
For a long time economists have warned that abundant natural resources are bad for economic development because their exploitation stunts manufacturing exports, favours rent-seeking activities by politically well-connected people, and generally leads to unsustainable policies for which, as so often, the poor end up paying the price with lost growth and opportunity. But over the last few years the so-called resource curse has