This study examines the role of master’s education in the natural
sciences and whether and how master’s degree programs might be
enhanced to bolster our nation’s workforce and our science-based industries.
To carry out the study, the National Academies appointed a committee
of experts that was charged with exploring and answering, as possible
given the data available, the following questions:
Continuing education (CE) is the process by which health professionals
keep up to date with the latest knowledge and
advances in health care. However, the CE “system,” as it is
structured today, is so deeply flawed that it cannot properly support
the development of health professionals. CE has become structured
around health professional participation instead of performance
improvement. This has left health professionals unprepared
to perform at the highest levels consistently, putting into question
whether the public is receiving care of the highest possibly quality
Competencies within different contexts may require different bundles of skills, knowledge and
attitudes. The challenge is to determine which competencies can be bundled together to provide
the optimal grouping for performing tasks. Another challenge is designing learning experiences
that support students as they practice using and applying these competencies in different
contexts. Continual refinement of defined competencies is necessary so that enhanced
performance in a variety of contexts can be assessed. In essence, CBE is a process, not a
Increasing diversity in the U.S. population has sharpened concerns
about the vitality and diversity of the clinical research workforce, concerns that
have persisted for two decades. Our nation’s unprecedented level of investment
in biomedical research has led to an explosion of new knowledge
about human health and disease, but basic research achievements must be
translated into treatments and therapies in order to benefit human health.
Scarcely one half of the children of our country continue in school much beyond the fifth grade. It is
important, therefore, that so far as possible the knowledge which has most to do with human welfare should
be presented in the early years of school life.
Fisher, Metchnikoff, Sedgwick, and others have shown that the health of a people influences the prosperity
and happiness of a nation more than any other one thing. The highest patriotism is therefore the conservation
The primary remaining problemin keymanagement is a technical issue; namely
how to locate the certiﬁcate for a certain machine or person.
Some basic requirements on the facility used to locate the certiﬁcate can easily
be identiﬁed. It must be accessible everywhere. It should be practical, in the sense
that it should not be extremely expensive or cause administrative hassle, to work.
Preferably it should be distributed, because a central world-wide organization to
store all certiﬁcates is not feasible to implement.
In this low-cost competitive environment, a region’s best chance to differentiate itself is with its brainpower:
the education, knowledge, skills, and abilities of its workforce. From this perspective, every region has the
potential to be competitive.
Until recently, economic development practitioners paid scant attention to workforce issues, but this is
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Occupational analysis provides economic development practitioners with insights into the talent base within a
region. Each occupation represents a portfolio of knowledge, skills and abilities. In Southeast Wisconsin, the
Milwaukee 7 region, economic and workforce development professionals are looking at the occupational
composition of 15 targeted industry groups, including pharmaceuticals, plastics, and industrial machinery.
Conserving the rich biodiversity
of the countries of ASEAN is
an imposing challenge, requiring
political commitment, adequate
resources, widespread awareness,
and innovative approaches to
reconciling the needs of nature with
those of people. It also requires a
knowledgeable, skilled and committed
workforce and training is generally
seen as the major means of
reaching this goal; few conservation
plans and projects do not
Chapter 51 provides knowledge of employment law. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Identify and describe legislation protecting worker safety, health, and well-being; regulating wages and hours, pensions and benefits, and income security; and that governs unionized workforces; explain employment-at-will doctrine and its major exceptions.
When comparing CBE to some of the more traditional models of education (Fig. 2), three
fundamentally different characteristics emerge. First, CBE explicitly maps the specific health
needs of the populations to a set of competencies for the workforce to be trained. In other words,
it guides decisions about what graduates of the educational programs must be able to do, in order
to address the key health issues of the community.
The pursuit of scientific knowledge and its technical application towards society requires the
talent, perspectives and insight that can only be assured by increasing diversity in the research
workforce. Therefore, all projects are encouraged to have a balanced participation of women
and men in their research activities and to raise awareness on combating gender prejudices
and stereotypes. When human beings are involved as users, gender differences may exist.
These will be addressed as an integral part of the research to ensure the highest level of