history began more than 100 years ago. In the field of dentistry, crude devices
by today' s standards were developed in the late 19th century to evaluate the density
of the bone in the mandible. The advances in technology continued, albeit slowly,
for the first half of the 20th century, gaining some speed in the 1960s and 1970s.
The introduction of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the late 1980s truly
opened the door to clinicians' offices for bone densitometry.
Layout problems arise in a number of domains and one common
strategy is to use optimization techniques to ﬁnd a layout that sat-
isﬁes domain-speciﬁc criteria. Researchers have applied this op-
timization approach to circuit board layout [Sarrafzadeh and Lee
1993], graph layout [Tollis et al. 1998], component layout in prod-
uct design [Cagan et al. 2002], document layout [Jacobs et al. 2003;
Hurst et al. 2009], UI layout [Lok and Feiner 2001; Gajos et al.
2010], label layout [Christensen et al. 1995; Vollick et al. 2007],
and architectural ﬂoor plan layout [Merrell et al. 2010].
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Some proposed calorielowering strategies include eating
foods that are low in calories for a given measure of food
(e.g., many kinds of vegetables and fruits and some soups).
However, when making changes to improve nutrient intake,
one needs to make substitutions to avoid excessive calorie
intake. The healthiest way to reduce calorie intake is to
reduce one’s intake of added sugars, fats, and alcohol,
which all provide calories but few or no essential nutrients
(for more information, see chs.
Often destinations are artificially divided by
geographical and political barriers, which fail to take into consideration consumer preferences or
tourism industry functions. An example of that is the Alps shared by France, Austria, Switzerland,
Italy by often perceived and consumed as part of the same product by skiers. For the purpose of
this paper destinations are considered to be a defined geographical region which is understood by
its visitors as a unique entity, with a political and legislative framework for tourism marketing and
Manually annotated corpora are valuable but scarce resources, yet for many annotation tasks such as treebanking and sequence labeling there exist multiple corpora with different and incompatible annotation guidelines or standards. This seems to be a great waste of human efforts, and it would be nice to automatically adapt one annotation standard to another. We present a simple yet effective strategy that transfers knowledge from a differently annotated corpus to the corpus with desired annotation.