LABOR MARKET EFFECT’S OF DEMOGRAPHIC AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN TAIWAN: RETURNS TO EDUCATION, WAGE INEQUALITY AND WOMEN’S LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION It seems
that parents are sorting on some characteristics of school districts, though not on anything
that serves to increase student performance conditional on individual and peer
Reviews commonly practiced, & often egregious, forms of child labor: the exploitation of children in commercial agriculture & fishing industries producing primarily for export & forced or bonded child labor. Discusses educational, economic, familial, governmental, & societal factors contributing to the use of child labor. Looks at working conditions, health & safety, & terms of employment of children. Examines the situations of forced child labor including debt bondage & the trafficking, sale & fraudulent recruitment of children. The study provides regional & specific industrial profiles.
This monograph documents recent (2005–2008) RAND Corporation research on combat air force aircrew management problems resulting from the competing goals of producing sufficient experienced combat pilots and operating within the constraints of force structure reductions. The monograph summarizes the supply-and-demand problems the fighter force has faced over the past decade, summarizes the decisions made in an attempt to solve them, and describes the RAND dynamic simulation model used to help t
A new U.S. grand strategy has been emerging, one that requires not only resources but patience and commitment: the promotion of democracy and freedom abroad. The U.S. armed forces will continue to be among the myriad contributors necessary to achieve this goal. In the face of increasing complexity, changing
This dissertation covers three topics—three points of view—of issues in international migration. The first paper examines a new facet of the question “Who migrates?” by taking a detailed look at the cognitive and mental health profiles of migrants to investigate a potential psycho-cognitive selection (a mentally healthy migrant hypothesis) as an explanation of an observed positive difference between th
The discipline of economics has developed principles, theories, and
models that isolate the most important determinants of economic events.
In constructing a model, economists make assumptions to eliminate unnecessary
detail to reduce the complexity of economic behavior. Once
modeled, economic behavior may be presented as a relationship between
dependent and independent variables. The behavior being explained is
the dependent variable; the economic events explaining that behavior are
the independent variables.
We interviewed experts to explain the growth of Luxembourg and Ireland. Tiny Luxembourg grew to
be a European mutual fund hub, fueled by favorable bank secrecy and tax laws as well as its central
location. The growth of Ireland (Dublin in particular) on the other hand, was driven by a tax advantage
given to management companies and a highly educated labor force. In particular, until recently, fund
management companies paid a tax of only 10% on their income (relative to a 32% corporate income tax
in Ireland) and they were allowed extra deductions for rental...
Most observers of the economy now accept that a major shift occurred during the 1970s.
The rapid productivity growth of the postwar years came to an end—for reasons that
are still being debated among economists and historians. Wage growth lagged, and the
economy suffered multiple shocks from energy prices and rapid inflation. The surge of
births in the postwar baby boom meant that the labor force grew rapidly, while women
were entering the labor force in numbers unprecedented in peacetime.
And what effect do these industrial shifts have on the employability of city residents?
The transformation has favored a more educated labor force over blue-collar or entry-
level workers, and it has been most pronounced in the Northeast and Midwest, which
house the greatest concentration of minority groups (Moss and Tilly, 1991; Kasarda,
1985, 1989, 1990).
Disability is an important issue for the transition countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Not only is a significant portion of their population either in poor health or disabled-with implications for labor force participation and productivity-but their aging demographics project an increase in the share of disabled people, raising concerns about the sustainability of social protection programs.
Scholarly debates over immigration policy are conducted mainly in terms of
the effect of that policy on labor markets and economic measures of pro-
ductivity. Of principal concern is the fit between the labor-market needs of
a given nation and the composition of people immigrating to that country.
Debates over the displacement of indigenous workers are equally prevalent.
While the economic and labor-force implications of immigration and immi-
gration policy are important, they are not the...
Chương 6 đề cập đến vấn đề di chuyển quốc tế các nguồn lực. Chương này trình bày một số nội dung chủ yếu sau: Di chuyển vốn quốc tế, di chuyển lao động quốc tế (International Labor Force Migration). Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo để nắm bắt các nội dung chi tiết.
Unemployment (or joblessness), as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past four weeks. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy usually experiences a relatively high unemployment rate.
The core of this chapter is a discussion of EITC-related behavioral issues
and research. Section 3.3 provides EITC program statistics. As would be
expected with a program that has more than tripled in size (in real dollars)
in the 1990s, a considerable amount of attention has been paid to the EITC
in recent years. In section 3.4, we outline the conceptual underpinnings of
much of this recent work and discuss EITC participation and compliance,
its eﬀects on labor force participation and hours of work, marriage and fer-
tility, skill formation, and consumption.
Ninety million people migrate for work globally every year and an increasing
percentage of those workers are moving between emerging economies, rather
than to industrialized nations. Otherwise known as South-South labor migrants,
these workers are filling jobs in manufacturing, agriculture, construction and
service industries in countries like Malaysia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan
and Egypt. Migrant workers provide a cost-effective and hardworking labor
force in labor-intensive industries, but they are also vulnerable, isolated and
often heavily indebted.
The financial sectors in South Asia Region (SAR) are dominated by commercial banks, which account for the vast majority of the financial system s assets. The domestic debt markets including the government bond and corporate bond markets are at an early stage of development and there are few institutional investors. In recent years, countries in SAR have attempted to develop local debt markets, although the pace of development remains uneven and slow due to many regulatory and institutional impediments....
The NLSS was followed by the Nepal Labor Force Survey (NLFS), the first of its kind carried out by
the CBS during 1998/99 with technical support from the International Labor Organization (ILO)
through funding made available by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), providing
comprehensive information on employment statistics.
In January 2000 the Household Consumption Survey of Rural Nepal (HCSRN) was planned and
launched, utilizing government resources and internal technical capability.
There is a growing body of evidence which demonstrates
that following a diet that complies with the Dietary
Guidelines may reduce the risk of chronic disease.
Recently, it was reported that dietary patterns consistent
with recommended dietary guidance were associated
with a lower risk of mortality among individuals age 45
years and older in the United States.
In the past 30 years, there have been significant changes to the Federal workforce (FW) and the broader labor market from which it draws -- the civilian labor force. As articulated in the merit system principles, the Fed. Govżt. is committed to the goals of a representative FW and to Fed. agencies which manage their employees fairly and develop and deploy their talents effectively. Therefore, it is important to assess the governmentżs progress towards achieving the stated ideals. This report examines changes in the composition of the FW and Fed.
We exclude El Paso from this portion of the analysis because Mexicans are the principal
victims of air pollution from the sources in our sample, and because differences in Mexican and
U.S. census data greatly complicate the analysis.
Figure 2 presents the spatial distribution of poverty in Ciudad Juárez, measured as the
percentage of the labor force in each AGEB earning less than two times the minimum wage. It
shows that the poorer sections of Ciudad Juárez are mostly in the southern and western parts of
the city. Figures 3 and 4 map concentrations of PM10 attributable...