The Government plays an important role in ensuring that insurance services can generate
benefits. In developed countries, the Government’s key role is to act as a regulator to
ensure security and stability in the sector. In developing countries, it also has the role of
providing insurance services as a public good.
Developing countries seek to establish efficient domestic regulatory frameworks as a
prerequisite for insurance service privatization and liberalization.
Bonuses can be a great motivation tool, even for employees of the smallest business. They can also be a waste of money. How they are planned and administered makes the difference. Properly administered bonuses can reinforce behavior that will lead your company to success by rewarding.
The creation of quick jobs, as opposed to training, often results in the
creation of too many bricklayers, often of not very good caliber. So
that when the fund goes, people are no more able to get a good job
Sometimes there is a contradiction between building quality projects
and using local labor, because when asked, municipalities often want
quality projects. And yet bilateral and multilateral agencies say they want
local labor to be employed.
Finally, there are some environmental issues.
Our stylized model generates several empirical hypotheses about the insurance offer decision. Firms
in industries where labor turnover rates are high do not tend to offer insurance. Premium rigidities will
be most pronounced in such industries. Firms not offering insurance will tend to have lower health-cost
variability and lower average expected health spending than ﬁrms offering insurance; for example, they
have higher proportions of younger workers or are in industries where workers tend to be healthy.
Other researchers have studied the issues examined here. Excellent articles by Blumberg and Nichols
(2004), Chernew and Hirth (2004), and Gruber and Madrian (2004) have carefully documented many
reasons why so many Americans are uninsured. There is no single and simple explanation about why
many ﬁrms refuse to offer insurance and why employees sometimes refuse to accept these offers. The
problem is complex. In this article, we focus on labor market turnover and expectations to explain ﬁrms’
insurance offer decisions.
The IDB’s conclusion is that funds really are not important generators
of employment or income. Most of the jobs created were temporary. Most
of the local employment or virtually all of the local employment was for
unskilled labor at wages equal to or below the minimum wage in the
region, not an above-poverty wage. The total expenditure of funds was
not sufficient to move people out of poverty. Some part of that total ex-
penditure went to material and to skilled labor that came in with the
contractors from outside the poor communities....
Our new insight is on the interaction between relative labor turnover dynamics and lack of insurers’
premium ﬂexibility. A related possibility is that high labor turnover may be preferred by some
employers, especially small ﬁrms that employ homogenous workers with low job-speciﬁc human capital.
Workers tolerant of high turnover tend to be younger and healthier. By not offering health insurance,
despite the tax advantage, these ﬁrms deter older and less healthy workers.
Incoming data on the labor market have remained disappointing. Private-sector
employment has grown only sluggishly, the small decline in the unemployment rate is
attributable more to reduced labor force participation than to job creation, and initial
claims for unemployment insurance remain high. Firms are reluctant to add permanent
employees, citing slow growth of sales and elevated economic and regulatory