The second domain, environmental pollutants, encompasses exposures that might bring about chronic
conditions or exacerbate these conditions. We include in this domain air, water, and other toxic pollutants. For
example, repeated exposure to toxic waste sites may result in malignancies later in life (American Cancer
Society, 2002), which in turn may lead to functional decline (Teno et al., 2001; Michael et al., 2000). Thus,
exposure to water contamination or toxic wastes is likely to affect health status, particularly though cumulated
effects in the lifecourse.