An employer will rarely make an unconditional pre-payment, that is, a down
payment to a contractor at the start of the contract. He can, however, make early
payment to the contractor for provision of offices, laboratory, and transport for
the engineer’s staff on site, etc. (see Section 15.10). These matters by no means
cover the contractor’s outgoings for his initial set-up, especially when the pro-
ject is very large and overseas, so significant advance payments, secured by a
repayment bond, are often allowed....