Xem 1-20 trên 102 kết quả Language acquisition
  • This paper reports the on-going research of a thesis project investigating a computational model of early language acquisition. The model discovers word-like units from crossmodal input data and builds continuously evolving internal representations within a cognitive model of memory. Current cognitive theories suggest that young infants employ general statistical mechanisms that exploit the statistical regularities within their environment to acquire language skills.

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  • This paper argues that developmental patterns in child language be taken seriously in computational models of language acquisition, and proposes a formal theory that meets this criterion. We first present developmental facts that are problematic for statistical learning approaches which assume no prior knowledge of grammar, and for traditional learnability models which assume the learner moves from one UG-defined grammar to another. In contrast, we view language acquisition as a population of grammars associated with "weights", that compete in a Darwinian selectionist process. ...

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  • The nature and amount of information needed for learning a natural language, and the underlying mechanisms involved in this process, are the subject of much debate: is it possible to learn a language from usage data only, or some sort of innate knowledge and/or bias is needed to boost the process? This is a topic of interest to (psycho)linguists who study human language acquisition, as well as computational linguists who develop the knowledge sources necessary for largescale natural language processing systems. ...

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  • Theories of second language acquisition có nội dung trình bày về: An innatist model: Krashen’s input hypothesis, Two cognitive models, A social constructivist model: Long’s interaction hypothesi. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo bài giảng.

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  • A new account of parameter setting during grammatical acquisition is presented in terms of Generalized Categorial G r a m m a r embedded in a default inheritance hierarchy, providing a natural partial ordering on the setting of parameters. Experiments show that several experimentally effective learners can be defined in this framework. Ew)lutionary simulations suggest that a lea.rner with default initial settings for parameters will emerge, provided that learning is memory limited and the environment of linguistic adaptation contains an appropriate language. ...

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  • Learning a semantic lexicon is often an important first step in building a system that learns to interpret the meaning of natural language. It is especially important in language grounding where the training data usually consist of language paired with an ambiguous perceptual context. Recent work by Chen and Mooney (2011) introduced a lexicon learning method that deals with ambiguous relational data by taking intersections of graphs.

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  • An investment of effort over the last two years has begun to produce a wealth of data concerning computational psycholinguistic models of syntax acquisition. The data is generated by running simulations on a recently completed database of word order patterns from over 3,000 abstract languages. This article presents the design of the database which contains sentence patterns, grammars and derivations that can be used to test acquisition models from widely divergent paradigms.

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  • The new edition of this highly successful A–Z guide explores the main concepts and terms used in the study of language and linguistics. Containing over 300 entries, thoroughly updated to reflect the latest developments in the field, this book includes entries in: Cognitive linguistics; Discourse analysis; Phonology and phonetics; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics; Syntax and semantics.

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  • To facilitate the use of syntactic information in the study of child language acquisition, a coding scheme for Grammatical Relations (GRs) in transcripts of parent-child dialogs has been proposed by Sagae, MacWhinney and Lavie (2004). We discuss the use of current NLP techniques to produce the GRs in this annotation scheme. By using a statistical parser (Charniak, 2000) and memorybased learning tools for classification (Daelemans et al., 2004), we obtain high precision and recall of several GRs. ...

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  • During early language acquisition, infants must learn both a lexicon and a model of phonetics that explains how lexical items can vary in pronunciation—for instance “the” might be realized as [Di] or [D@]. Previous models of acquisition have generally tackled these problems in isolation, yet behavioral evidence suggests infants acquire lexical and phonetic knowledge simultaneously.

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  • This paper uses an unsupervised model of grounded language acquisition to study the role that social cues play in language acquisition. The input to the model consists of (orthographically transcribed) child-directed utterances accompanied by the set of objects present in the non-linguistic context. Each object is annotated by social cues, indicating e.g., whether the caregiver is looking at or touching the object.

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  • Institutional testing sessions are arranged by language schools and employers. Anyone who wants to take the test in this venue should talk to his or her instructor, coordinator, or supervisor. When a test is administered by a company or school, registration processes and fees are set by that institution.

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  • .Natural language acquisition listening speaking reading writing .Why teach reading and writing? Many children show interest and enthusiasm in reading and writinhelp to reinforce oral.Many children show interest and enthusiasm in reading and writing help to reinforce oral language give children real sense of achievement provide visual language open up opportunities for record keeping help link school learning with use of English outside class.

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  • Ebook Spectrum Language Arts Grade 4 includes focused practice for language arts mastery such as grammar and usage, parts of speech and sentence types, vocabulary acquisition and usage, and a writer's guide. Spectrum(R) Reading workbooks contain focused practice for reading comprehension, including letters and sounds, word recognition, integration of knowledge and ideas, key ideas and details, main idea, story structure, theme, and summarization. Each lesson features an illustrated story followed by exercise in comprehension.

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  • These adult ESOL learners may reside in the United States perma- nently, or in some cases for indefi nite but long periods of time (in contrast to international university students who are typically expected to return to their home countries). Also included here are the adult children of these immigrants and refugees—children who arrived in the United States late enough in life that their own spoken English is noticeably nonnative and not their dominant language.

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  • We describe the early stage of our methodology of knowledge acquisition from technical texts. First, a partial morpho-syntactic analysis is performed to extract "candidate terms". Then, the knowledge engineer, assisted by an automatic clustering tool, builds the "conceptual fields" of the domain. We focus on this conceptual analysis stage, describe the data prepared from the results of the morpho-syntactic analysis and show the results of the clustering module and their interpretation.

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  • The present paper will seek to present an approach to bilingual lexicon extraction from non-aligned comparable corpora, phrasal translation as well as evaluations on Cross-Language Information Retrieval. A two-stages translation model is proposed for the acquisition of bilingual terminology from comparable corpora, disambiguation and selection of best translation alternatives according to their linguistics-based knowledge.

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  • Collocational knowledge is necessary for language generation. The problem is that collocations come in a large variety of forms. They can involve two, three or more words, these words can be of different syntactic categories and they can be involved in more or less rigid ways. This leads to two main difficulties: collocational knowledge has to be acquired and it must be represented flexibly so that it can be used for language generation. We address both problems in this paper, focusing on the acquisition problem. We describe a program, X t r a c t , that automatically acquires...

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  • This paper demonstrates a novel distributed architecture to facilitate the acquisition of Language Resources. We build a factory that automates the stages involved in the acquisition, production, updating and maintenance of these resources. The factory is designed as a platform where functionalities are deployed as web services, which can be combined in complex acquisition chains using workflows. We show a case study, which acquires a Translation Memory for a given pair of languages and a domain using web services for crawling, sentence alignment and conversion to TMX. ...

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  • First errors of learning are usually gigantic. Then, and gradually, they diminish as one benefits of his/her errors. In a later stage of learning foreign or second language, learners are expected to reach a native speaker’s competence or, at least, near that competence where errors are either eliminated or minimized to the extent that their impact on the learners' communication disappears, or they go unnoticed. But, unfortunately, the case with most of second language learners’ errors is not so.

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