Separate chapters deal with reading, writing, speaking and listening, and these different
threads are drawn together in sections on knowledge about language – including
spelling, grammar and punctuation – and study of texts – including media, poetry,
drama, response to literature and the use of non-fiction texts. The final chapter deals
with policy and schemes of work.
The programme provides active support to French
departments, language centres and French-language
degree programmes, instructor-researchers and
student researchers, to develop teaching and
research about French and in French, about its
partner languages and, lastly, about intercultural
communication in development. Its action is based
on the work of seven networks of researchers, a
didactics collective and vehicles for information
and think-tank sharing.
Millions of adults in the U.S. report that they speak limited English, and English language ability appears linked to multiple dimensions of adult life, such as civic participation and workforce participation and mobility.
The Perl Journal (TPJ) did something most print journals aspire to, but few succeed. Within a remarkable short time, TPJ acquired a cult-following and became the voice of the Perl community. Every serious Perl programmer subscribed to it, and every notable Perl guru jumped at the opportunity to write for it. Back issues were swapped like trading cards. No longer in print format, TPJ remains the quintessential spirit of Perl--a publication for and by Perl programmers who see fun and beauty in an admittedly quirky little language....
With increasing numbers of computers and diffusion of the internet around the world, localisation of the technology and the content it carries into the many languages people speak is becoming an ever more important area for discussion and action. Localisation, simply put, includes translation and cultural adaptation of user interfaces and software applications, as well as the creation and translation of internet content in diverse languages.
This book addresses state-of-the-art systems and achievements in various topics in the research field of speech and language technologies. Book chapters are organized in different sections covering diverse problems, which have to be solved in speech recognition and language understanding systems. In the first section machine translation systems based on large parallel corpora using rule-based and statistical-based translation methods are presented.
In recent years tree kernels have been proposed for the automatic learning of natural language applications. Unfortunately, they show (a) an inherent super linear complexity and (b) a lower accuracy than traditional attribute/value methods. In this paper, we show that tree kernels are very helpful in the processing of natural language as (a) we provide a simple algorithm to compute tree kernels in linear average running time and (b) our study on the classiﬁcation properties of diverse tree kernels show that kernel combinations always improve the traditional methods. ...
Web text has been successfully used as training data for many NLP applications. While most previous work accesses web text through search engine hit counts, we created a Web Corpus by downloading web pages to create a topic-diverse collection of 10 billion words of English. We show that for context-sensitive spelling correction the Web Corpus results are better than using a search engine. For thesaurus extraction, it achieved similar overall results to a corpus of newspaper text.
A fusion of linguistic, religious and ethnic groups with rich, diverse roots and intersecting histories make up South Africa. However, the literature on most of the smaller groups tends to be thin and uneven and often tends to relegate them to the margins of the country’s major narratives. This innovative study introduces readers to a fascinating world of linguistic, religious and cultural politics in the South African port city of Durban from around 1950, the world of the Arabic Study Circle.
We investigate how novel English-derived words (anglicisms) are used in a Germanlanguage Internet hip hop forum, and what factors contribute to their uptake.
Because English has established itself as something of a global lingua franca, many languages are currently undergoing a process of introducing new loanwords borrowed from English. However, while the motivations for borrowing are well studied, including e.g.
As an area of great linguistic and cultural diversity, Asian language resources have received much less attention than their western counterparts. Creating a common standard for Asian language resources that is compatible with an international standard has at least three strong advantages: to increase the competitive edge of Asian countries, to bring Asian countries to closer to their western counterparts, and to bring more cohesion among Asian countries. To achieve this goal, we have launched a two year project to create a common standard for Asian language resources. ...
This paper describes recent progress on the TRIPS architecture for developing spoken-language dialogue systems. The interactive poster session will include demonstrations of two systems built using TRIPS: a computer purchasing assistant, and an object placement (and manipulation) task.
Databases are nowadays used by varied and diverse users, many of whom are unfamiliar with the workings of a computer, but who, nevertheless, want to use those databases more easily. Rising to meet this demand, authors are developing a Japanese language interface, called KID, as a database front-end system. KID incorporates a world model representing application and database knowledge to help make databases easier to use.
Graduate school is where students acquire knowledge and new experiences. Studying at the University provides a large exposure to students in their regulations. University to build a base of expertise and professional skills in students.
To higher student is used for research in different fields. They have to read the different objects that are not in the line of their careers. Therefore, they go to college or university to get rich knowledge of their field. Universities and colleges have experienced staff in the areas of diversity.
Language Integrated Query (LINQ), as well as the C# 3.0 and VB 9.0 language extensions to support it, is
the most import single new feature of Visual Studio 2008 and the .NET Framework 3.x. LINQ is
Microsoft ’ s first attempt to define a universal query language for a diverse set of in - memory collections
of generic objects, entities persisted in relational database tables, and element and attributes of XML
documents or fragments, as well as a wide variety of other data types, such as RSS and Atom
syndication feeds. Microsoft invested millions of dollars in Anders Hejlsberg...
Presentation of vocabulary is another problematic issue in a book aimed at users from diverse linguistic backgrounds. There can be no two-way glossary at the back of Colloquial English, and instead I must depend on the student's having access to a good learner's dictionary of English
Government information is often not mobile friendly;
increasing accessibility (especially of local information) is
one way libraries can serve diverse users. Some libraries
are providing services of this type in a desktop-oriented
way already. This chapter discusses tools that can be used
to make such sites more mobile friendly, including ones
requiring little funds or technical background.
The most obvious way to leverage patrons’ mobile
devices is to put content on the Web.
As can be seen in Table 1, the pre-service teachers had diverse linguistic and
2 Selection of the pre-service teachers, while not designed to be
representative, provided a broad student teacher perspective on issues related to
teaching ESL writing.
The participants represented a diverse set of backgrounds and experiences. Seven
were native English speakers. Five were second language speakers of English, with
Korean, French and Portuguese as their first language backgrounds.
The diversity that exists in Ontario’s classrooms has helped to shape
the policy outlined in this document, which is intended to promote good
outcomes for English language learners. These students need to learn the
language of instruction in English language schools at the same time as they
are working towards meeting the curriculum expectations. Implementation
of this policy will promote academic achievement among English language
learners at the level expected of all learners in Ontario.
O’Reilly brings diverse innovators together to nurture the ideas that spark revolutionary industries. We specialize in documenting the latest tools and systems, translating the innovator’s knowledge into useful skills for those in the trenches. Visit conferences.oreilly.com for our upcoming events. Safari Bookshelf (safari.oreilly.com) is the premier online reference library for programmers and IT professionals.