Xem 1-20 trên 327 kết quả Language in context
  • This book is designed to revise and consolidate grammar points at the level of Council of Europe Framework (CEF)Bl and B2. It assumes that some basic points have been covered. These can be practised in Macmillan English Grammar In Context Essential. The practice material includes a wide range of topics to reflect both everyday language use and the kinds of subjects learners might be studying in schools or colleges.

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  • Vocabulary in Context series. The reproducible lessons in this series focus on practical vocabulary terms, skills, and concepts in relevant situational settings. Struggling students learn over 3,000 high-utility words in 28 self-contained thematic lessons. Additionally, each lesson activates prior knowledge and continually reinforces fundamental language arts skills and concepts. These reproducible books include teacher notes and tips, answer keys, reference guides, lessons, unit reviews, and more. Inviting you to refer to part 2 of ebook.

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  • This paper presents a partial solution to a component of the problem of lexical choice: choosing the synonym most typical, or expected, in context. We apply a new statistical approach to representing the context of a word through lexical co-occurrence networks. The implementation was trained and evaluated on a large corpus, and results show that the inclusion of second-order co-occurrence relations improves the performance of our implemented lexical choice program.

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  • This pape~ describes an "intelligent" tutor of foreign language concepts and skills based upon state-of-the-art research in Intelligent reaching Systems and Computational Linguistics. The tutor is part of a large R&D project in ITS which resulted in a system (called DART~ for the design and development of intelligent teaching dialogues on PLATO I and in a program (called ELISA~ for teaching foreign language conjunctions in context. ELISA was able to teach a few conjunctions in English, Dutch and Italian.

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  • This edition of the book is in its scope and method the same as the first; the material and its arrangement remain basically unchanged. But there were in the first edition some omissions in the treatment of adverbs and links (conjunctions) which have been made good. Also a large part of the section on reported speech has been rewritten with additional examples and exercises in order to make the approach to this aspect of English grammar both more extensive and more flexible.

    pdf163p thekybk 27-10-2010 341 158   Download

  • Machine learning has become the dominant approach to building natural-language processing systems. However, current approaches generally require a great deal of laboriously constructed humanannotated training data. Ideally, a computer would be able to acquire language like a child by being exposed to linguistic input in the context of a relevant but ambiguous perceptual environment.

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  • Some of the meaning of a discourse is encoded in its linguistic forms. Thls is the truth-conditional meaning of the propositions those forms express and entail. Some of the meaning is suggested (or 'implicated', as Grice would say) by the fact that the encooer expresses just those propositions in just those linguistic forms in just the given contexts [ 2 ] . The first klnd of meaning is usually labeled 'semantics'; it is decoded. The second Is usually labeled 'pragmatlcs'; it is inferred from clues provided by code and context. Both kinds of meaning are related to syntax in...

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  • Let's 1a1k is a three-level course in speaking and listening for students of American English. It can also be used as the oral/aural component of any course that concentrates mainly on reading and writing skills, or as the basis for an intensive refresher course for learners who need to develop their fluency in English. Let's 1O,lk 1 is intended for high-beginning! low-intermediate students, Let's Talk 2 for intermediate-level students.

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  • Insights from multiple disciplines provides the foundation for the model of language in social context used in this study. We begin by delineating the central questions animating this project, and then proceed to locate these questions within frameworks provided by previous scholarship.English is a language of the western branch of the German language group in the Indo-European), were imported to England by the language invasion of many people in the 6th century.

    pdf327p thuthuy 28-07-2009 214 102   Download

  • Tài liệu học tiếng Anh dành cho những bạn yêu thích học anh văn muốn mở rộng kiến thức tiếng Anh của mình. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo. VOCABULARY WORKSHOP, First Course, helps students in 6th grade build their vocabularies by using words in context, analogies, synonyms, prefixes, suffixes, roots, and prepares for national and local standardized tests.

    pdf0p tailieuvn_99 27-12-2010 110 30   Download

  • Testing ESL Pragmatics Development and Validation of a Web-Based Assessment Battery Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2005. XIII, 156 pp., 43 tables, 8 graphs ISBN 3-631-52836-1 / US-ISBN 0-8204-7343-X · pb. € 39.– Although second language learners’ pragmatic competence (their ability to use language in context) is an essential part of their general communicative competence, it has not been a part of second language tests. This book helps fill this gap by describing the development and validation of a web-based test of ESL pragma-linguistics.

    pdf2p agenes 07-04-2013 41 8   Download

  • One problem with phrase-based statistical machine translation is the problem of longdistance reordering when translating between languages with different word orders, such as Japanese-English. In this paper, we propose a method of imposing reordering constraints using document-level context. As the documentlevel context, we use noun phrases which significantly occur in context documents containing source sentences.

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  • In this paper we show how to train statistical machine translation systems on reallife tasks using only non-parallel monolingual data from two languages. We present a modification of the method shown in (Ravi and Knight, 2011) that is scalable to vocabulary sizes of several thousand words. On the task shown in (Ravi and Knight, 2011) we obtain better results with only 5% of the computational effort when running our method with an n-gram language model.

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  • We consider the problem of parsing non-recursive context-free grammars, i.e., context-free grammars that generate finite languages. In natural language processing, this problem arises in several areas of application, including natural language generation, speech recognition and machine translation. We present two tabular algorithms for parsing of non-recursive context-free grammars, and show that they perform well in practical settings, despite the fact that this problem is PSPACEcomplete.

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  • The recent literature[8] shows that the belief "natural languages are not context-free" is not necessarily true, and there is no reason for us to give up the context-freedom of natural languages. We (to not discuss on this matter further, considering the fact that even if natural languages are not context-free, a fairly comprehensive grammar for a subset of natural language suflicient for practical systems can be written in context.free phrase structure. lhtJ.% our main concern is how to cope with the ambiguity of natural languages, and this concern is addressed in the fallowing section. ...

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  • The documentation of (unbounded-len~h) copying and cross-serial constructions in a few languages in the recent literature is usually taken to mean that natural languages are slightly context-sensitive. However, this ignores those copying constructions which, while productive, cannot be easily shown to apply to infinite sublanguages. To allow such finite copying constructions to be taken into account in formal modeling, it is necessary to recognize that natural languages cannot be realistically represented by formal languages of the usual sort.

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  • Currently several grammatical formalisms converge towards being declarative and towards utilizing context-free phrase-structure grammar as a backbone, e.g. L F G and PATR-II. Typically the processing of these formalisms is organized within a chart-parsing framework. The declarative character of the formalisms makes it important to decide upon an overall optimal control strategy on the part of the processor. In particular, this brings the ruleinvocation strategy into criticalfocus: to gain maximal processing efficiency, one has to determine the best way of putting the rules to use.

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  • A new class of formal languages will be defined the Distributed Index Languages (DI-languages). The grammar-formalism generating the new class - the DI-grammars - cover unbound dependencies in a rather natural way. The place of DI-languages in the Chomsky-hierarchy will be determined: Like Aho's indexed Languages, DI-languages represent a proper subclass of Type 1 (contextsensitive languages) and properly include Type 2 (context-free languages), but the DI-class is neither a subclass nor a superclass of Aho's indexed class. ...

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  • (BQ) Ebook Discovering language The Structure of Modern English is organized under thematic headings, which are thoroughly cross-referenced, enabling students and teachers to use the book as required-either as a course text or to help with individual aspects of language. Each section includes an introduction, worked examples, "in context" sections relating the topic to real text examples, suggestions for further reading and analysis and a summary.

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  • Communication generally means putting words together to express your thoughts in context. Before you can put words together effectively, you must comprehend basic language concepts. This book emphasizes an understanding of key grammatical concepts over the memorization of individual words.

    pdf145p danghainamn 19-03-2011 344 227   Download

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