Xem 1-20 trên 183 kết quả Language instruction
  • This paper presents an analysis of purpose clauses in the context of instruction understanding. Such analysis shows that goals affect the interpretation and / or execution of actions, lends support to the proposal of using generation and enablement to model relations between actions, and sheds light on some inference processes necessary to interpret purpose clauses. which, as its name says, expresses the agent's purpose in performing a certain action. The analysis of purpose clauses is relevant to the problem of understanding Natural Language instructions, because: ...

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  • Natural language instructions, though prevalent in many spheres of communication, have only recently begun to receive attention within computational linguistics[5]. Instructions are often accompanied by language intended to signal repetition of the action that they instruct. In order to develop a system that is able to understand instructions, with the goal of executing them, it is necessary to investigate what is meant by various types of repetition, and the different ways in which repetition can be expressed. ...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành toán học được đăng trên tạp chí toán học quấc tế đề tài: Systematic use of mother tongue as learning/teaching resources in target language instruction

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  • Computer technology has been used in language teaching since the 1980’s. However, with the advent of Internet, the computer has been transformed from a tool for information processing and display to a tool for information processing and communication. The instant worldwide connections enabled by the Internet have changed the way teachers and learners work in their teaching and learning of second/foreign language. Indeed, the use of the Internet and the World Wide Web in second and foreign language instruction has been increasingly recognized.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Systematic use of mother tongue as learning/teaching resources in target language instruction

    pdf29p sting06 16-02-2012 12 2   Download

  • In this paper, we present a reinforcement learning approach for mapping natural language instructions to sequences of executable actions. We assume access to a reward function that defines the quality of the executed actions. During training, the learner repeatedly constructs action sequences for a set of documents, executes those actions, and observes the resulting reward. We use a policy gradient algorithm to estimate the parameters of a log-linear model for action selection.

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  • Translation is one of the most important skills in language learning. Especially learning. Here is the Vietnamese translation of training materials aimed at helping you-his favorite language, you can cultivate and improve their skills

    pdf307p brightenmoon 23-08-2010 261 222   Download

  • This book examines the most recent advances in theory and research on communicative grammar instruction and the various instructional options for implementing it effectively in second language (L2) classrooms. A consideration of L2 teaching over the past few decades reveals a fundamental shift in the teaching of grammar from one in which grammar instruction was central, to one in which grammar instruction was absent, and to the recent reconsideration of the significance of the role of grammar instruction....

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  • Acquiring Knowledge and Skills 1. Learning experiences that engage students in active learning, build on prior knowledge and experiences, and develop conceptual and procedural understanding, along with student independence. Variety of Instructor Roles 2. Teachers who use a variety of teaching roles (e.g., direct instruction, facilitating, modeling, coaching, reflecting, and guiding observing), and adapt these as appropriate for different purposes of instruction and student needs. Multiple Student Roles 3. Opportunities to learn through a variety of roles (e.g.

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  • Score gains in the Writing component of the Test have been the main focus of much of this research. Green (2004) presents the findings of four studies, all of which involved candidates whose average initial score was 5.0 and who were undertaking periods of English language instruction of not more than three months. Average score gains in these four studies were less than half a band. In these studies, the candidates who achieved a score of 5.0 or below on the first test tended to improve on the second, while those achieving a score of 7.0 tended to receive a...

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  • Twenty-five years ago, when the idea for this dictionary was first conceived, researchers of linguistics had virtually no terminological reference works that could provide them with an introduction to this fast-growing international science or with source material for conducting their own linguistic research. This situation has changed greatly over the years, especially in the English-speaking world, where David Crystal’s Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language and Frederick J.Newmeyer’s Cambridge Survey of Linguistics were published in 1987.

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  • Instruction Set: The repertoire of instructions of a computer. Different computers have different instruction sets. But with many aspects in common. Early computers had very simple instruction sets. Simplified implementation. Many modern computers also have simple instruction sets.

    pdf96p chikien276 13-10-2010 68 9   Download

  • .Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science .Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science (UTiCS) delivers high-quality instructional content for undergraduates studying in all areas of computing and information science. From core foundational and theoretical material to final-year topics and applications, UTiCS books take a fresh, concise, and modern approach and are ideal for self-study or for a one- or two-semester course. The texts are all authored by established experts in their fields, reviewed by an international advisory board, and contain numerous examples and problems.

    pdf257p trasua_123 30-12-2012 27 8   Download

  • High-level languages, such as C, C++, and Java, are more like natural languages and thus make programs easier to read and write. Low-level languages are closer to the machine and there is a one-to-many relationship between high-level languages and low-level languages, where language translators such as compilers and interpreters convert each high-level instruction into many low-level instructions. The native language of a particular machine is a low-level language known as machine language and is coded in ones and zeros.

    pdf272p hotmoingay 03-01-2013 17 3   Download

  • We present a natural language generation approach which models, exploits, and manipulates the non-linguistic context in situated communication, using techniques from AI planning. We show how to generate instructions which deliberately guide the hearer to a location that is convenient for the generation of simple referring expressions, and how to generate referring expressions with context-dependent adjectives.

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  • Machine learning has become the dominant approach to building natural-language processing systems. However, current approaches generally require a great deal of laboriously constructed humanannotated training data. Ideally, a computer would be able to acquire language like a child by being exposed to linguistic input in the context of a relevant but ambiguous perceptual environment.

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  • First errors of learning are usually gigantic. Then, and gradually, they diminish as one benefits of his/her errors. In a later stage of learning foreign or second language, learners are expected to reach a native speaker’s competence or, at least, near that competence where errors are either eliminated or minimized to the extent that their impact on the learners' communication disappears, or they go unnoticed. But, unfortunately, the case with most of second language learners’ errors is not so.

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  • Natural language generation (NLG) systems are notoriously hard to evaluate. On the one hand, simply comparing system outputs to a gold standard is not appropriate because there can be multiple generated outputs that are equally good, and finding metrics that account for this variability and produce results consistent with human judgments and task performance measures is difficult (Belz and Gatt, 2008; Stent et al., 2005; Foster, 2008). On the other hand, lab-based evaluations with human subjects to assess each aspect of the system’s functionality are expensive and time-consuming. ...

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  • In this talk, I will address the problem of grounding linguistic analysis in control applications, such as game playing and robot navigation. We assume access to natural language documents that describe the desired behavior of a control algorithm (e.g., game strategy guides). Our goal is to demonstrate that knowledge automatically extracted from such documents can dramatically improve performance of the target application. First, I will present a reinforcement learning algorithm for learning to map natural language instructions to executable actions. ...

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  • We present a system for the real-time generation of car navigation instructions with landmarks. Our system relies exclusively on freely available map data from OpenStreetMap, organizes its output to fit into the available time until the next driving maneuver, and reacts in real time to driving errors. We show that female users spend significantly less time looking away from the road when using our system compared to a baseline system.

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