Xem 1-20 trên 914 kết quả Language issues
  • The 4th Edition of PROFESSIONAL ISSUES IN SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY AND AUDIOLOGY explores the most relevant and critical issues related to professional practice in the field of Communication Sciences and Disorders today. Written by a variety of highly regarded experts in the field, each chapter delves into a critical issue, such as research, education and health care policies, infection prevention,

    pdf96p muaxuan_102 20-02-2013 31 4   Download

  • Ebook The Language Hacking Guide  is a learning tool designed by Benny Lewis, who is better known as Benny the Irish Polyglot from Fluent in 3 Months blog. According to its author, this program is the culmination of his years-worth of research and travels in search for new cultures and experiences. It primarily caters to people who are interested in learning a new language and are looking to do so in a short amount of time.

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  • This book is intended to be a complete and useful reference to the Unified Model- ing Language (UML) for the developer, architect, project manager, system engi- neer, programmer, analyst, contracting officer, customer, and anyone else who needs to specify, design, build, or understand complex software systems. It pro- vides a full reference to the concepts and constructs of UML, including their se- mantics, syntax, notation, and purpose. It is organized to be a convenient but thorough reference for the working professional developer.

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  • This paper deals with the domination of communicative language teaching (CLT) which has become popular in teaching foreign languages. However, the application of CLT has caused difficulties for students, teachers and administrators. Within the scope of this paper, only teachers are mentioned so that we can see a part of teaching issues when CLT is introduced. The paper also suggests more research should be conducted based upon the factors of students and administrators in order that we can take proper steps in language training in the country. ...

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  • Invite you to refer to Part 2 of the book Issues Related To Translation to capture the following: Chapter selections for further reading 3, quick answers to general questions, constructing a model for analysis shift in translation, professional language translators, ethics and professionalism in translation, text translator.

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  • Do Alaska Native People Get Free Medical Care?* (and other frequently asked questions about Alaska Native issues and cultures) has been prepared by UAA/APU faculty and Anchorage community members as a companion to the Books of the Year. It provides responses to common questions about Alaska Native issues (the answer to the title question is “no; they paid in advance”) and includes recommended readings on a wide variety of topics including identity, language and culture; subsistence; ANCSA; the effects of colonialism; education and health care; and the future....

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  • This collection of essays covers a wide range of issues facing software developers today. In this book, you’ll find a treasure trove of pragmatic advice to improve the effectiveness of your development efforts. You’ll find essays on testing, controlling a project, the creation of domain specific languages, issues of build and deploy, programming languages, techniques for software development, and more!

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  • In this paper, we address this issue in providing just such an architectural framework by using the 3APL agent programming language as a starting point for identification and specification of more general individual agent components. This provides three additional benefits: it moves the work further down the road of implementation, contributes to a growing library of agent techniques and features, and allows a detailed comparison of different agent-based systems specified in similar ways.

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  • The conference was not seen in any way as a policy setting event, but as a platform for opening up informed debate on language and the NQF. Issues discussed in these proceedings include competency-based education and training; standards and levels in language assessment; and an approach to language assessment in ABET. Papers published in the proceedings are discussion documents rather than formal academic papers. Points raised from the floor in plenary have also been recorded in the form of thematic categories.

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  • We illustrate and explain problems of n-grams-based machine translation (MT) metrics (e.g. BLEU) when applied to morphologically rich languages such as Czech. A novel metric SemPOS based on the deep-syntactic representation of the sentence tackles the issue and retains the performance for translation to English as well.

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  • Based on experience with INTELLECT in the areas of quality assurance and customer support, a number of issues in evaluating a natural language database query system, particularly the INTELLECT system, will be discussed. A, I. Corporation offers licenses for customers t o use the INTELLECT software on their computers, to access their databases. We now have a number of customer installations, plus reports from companies that are marketing INTELLECT under agreements with us, so that we can begin to discuss user reactions as possible criteria for evaluating our system. ...

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  • Nowhere is t h e tension between the two areas of our field--computatlon and llnguistlcs--more apparent than in the issues that arise in connection with parsing natural language input. This panel addresses those issues from both computational and linguisric perspectives. Each panelist has submitted a position paper on some of the questions that appear below. The questions are loosely grouped in three sections. The first concentrates on the computational aspect, the second on the linguistic aspect, and the third on their interactions. ...

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  • In responding to the guidelines established by the session chairman of this panel, three of the five topics he set forth will be discussed. These include aggregate functions and quantity questions, querying semantically complex fields, and multi-file queries. As we will make clear in the sequel, the transformational apparatus utilized in the TQA Question Answering System provides a principled basis for handling these and many other problems i n natural language access to databases.

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  • This paper defines a language Z~ for specifying LFG grammars. This enables constraints on LFG's composite ontology (c-structures synchronised with fstructures) to be stated directly; no appeal to the LFG construction algorithm is needed. We use f to specify schemata annotated rules and the LFG uniqueness, completeness and coherence principles. Broader issues raised by this work are noted and discussed.

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  • Most NLP applications work under the assumption that a user input is error-free; thus, word segmentation (WS) for written languages that use word boundary markers (WBMs), such as spaces, has been regarded as a trivial issue. However, noisy real-world texts, such as blogs, e-mails, and SMS, may contain spacing errors that require correction before further processing may take place. For the Korean language, many researchers have adopted a traditional WS approach, which eliminates all spaces in the user input and re-inserts proper word boundaries. ...

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  • Convolution kernels, such as sequence and tree kernels, are advantageous for both the concept and accuracy of many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Experiments have, however, shown that the over-fitting problem often arises when these kernels are used in NLP tasks. This paper discusses this issue of convolution kernels, and then proposes a new approach based on statistical feature selection that avoids this issue. To enable the proposed method to be executed efficiently, it is embedded into an original kernel calculation process by using sub-structure mining algorithms. ...

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  • 1 Some Problematic Issues in the Thai Processing It is obvious that the most fundamental semantic unit in a language is the word. Words are explicitly identified in those languages with word boundaries. In Thai, there is no word boundary. Thai words are implicitly recognized and in many cases, they depend on the individual judgement. This causes a lot of difficulties in the Thai language processing.

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  • Current alternatives for language modeling are statistical techniques based on large amounts of training data, and hand-crafted context-free or finite-state grammars that are difficult to build and maintain. One way to address the problems of the grammar-based approach is to compile recognition grammars from grammars written in a more expressive formalism. While theoretically straight-forward, the compilation process can exceed memory and time bounds, and might not always result in accurate and efficient speech recognition.

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  • Reducing language model (LM) size is a critical issue when applying a LM to realistic applications which have memory constraints. In this paper, three measures are studied for the purpose of LM pruning. They are probability, rank, and entropy. We evaluated the performance of the three pruning criteria in a real application of Chinese text input in terms of character error rate (CER). We first present an empirical comparison, showing that rank performs the best in most cases. We also show that the high-performance of rank lies in its strong correlation with error rate. ...

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  • This paper reports work in progress on a sentence generation model which attempts to emulate certain language output patterns of children between the ages of one and one-half and three years. In particular, the model addresses the issue of why missing or phonetically "null" subjects appear as often as they do in the speech of young Englishspeaking children. It will also be used to examine why other patterns of output appear in the speech of children learning languages such as Italian and Chinese.

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