Language usage

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  • English usage is a subject as wide as the English language itself. By far the greater part of usage, however, raises no ontroversies and poses no problems for native speakers of English, just because it is their natural idiom. But there are certain limited areas --particular sounds, spellings, words, and constructions--about which there arises uncertainty, difficulty, or disagreement. The proper aim of a usage guide is to resolve these problems, rather than describe the whole of current usage.

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  • The entries in Paul Brians' "Common Errors in English Usage" are organized alphabetically and provide hours of amusement for anyone who loves language. This book brought back memories of childhood, in those moments where the use of "borrowed" and "lend" were taught at school. Then there is the every present annoyance of "its/it's." Who has not made a mistake while spelling lightening and The concept of language errors is a fuzzy one. I'll leave to linguists the technical definitions

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  • This glossary has been developed in cooperation with numerous professional translators and editors. Its purpose is to establish high standards for the quality of language usage, to promote uniformity in language usage, and to minimize the risk of misinterpretation of Vietnamese-language materials issued by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

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  • What is an error in English? The concept of language errors is a fuzzy one. I’ll leave to linguists the technical definitions. Here we’re concerned only with deviations from the standard use of English as judged by sophisticated users such as professional writers, editors, teachers, and literate executives and personnel officers. The aim of this site is to help you avoid low grades, lost employment opportunities, lost business, and titters of amusement at the way you write or speak.

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  • Practical English Usage answers your questions about the English language - and the questions your students ask. It is organized as an A-Z dictionary of over 600 problem points in the English language, all explained with practical, clear information. Now in its third edition, Practical English Usage has sold over two million copies and is a world best-seller. Practical English Usage is available in some countries as a Pack with Grammar Scan (diagnostic tests to accompany Practical English Usage)....

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  • This document requires or recommends certain practices for developing programs in the C# language. The objectiv of this coding standard is to have a positive effect on: Avoidance of errors/bugs, especially the hard­to­find onesmaintainability, by promoting some proven design principleMaintainability, by requiring or recommending a certain unity of style.

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  • Anew year is upon us—and quite a few interesting things have already happened. We just published our first book, for example. The Zend PHP Certification Practice Test Book, which I co-wrote with John Coggeshall, has just been unleashed on the PHP community with (if I may unleash some personal pride) extremely good results. In a separate—but far more important— piece of news, PHP was named “language of the year 2004” by a site that tracks language usage in the development community.

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  • Analog Behavioral Modeling With The Verilog-A Language provides the IC designer with an introduction to the methodologies and uses of analog behavioral modeling with the Verilog-A language. In doing so, an overview of Verilog-A language constructs as well as applications using the language are presented. In addition, the book is accompanied by the Verilog-A Explorer IDE (Integrated Development Environment), a limited capability Verilog-A enhanced SPICE simulator for further learning and experimentation with the Verilog-A language.

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  • Ebook Spectrum Language Arts Grade 4 includes focused practice for language arts mastery such as grammar and usage, parts of speech and sentence types, vocabulary acquisition and usage, and a writer's guide. Spectrum(R) Reading workbooks contain focused practice for reading comprehension, including letters and sounds, word recognition, integration of knowledge and ideas, key ideas and details, main idea, story structure, theme, and summarization. Each lesson features an illustrated story followed by exercise in comprehension.

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  • The C# Language Specification is the definitive source for C# syntax and usage. It contains detailed information about all aspects of the language and many points not covered in the Visual C# product documentation. The C# Language Specification is available on line from the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). In Visual Studio, the language specification is in the VC#\Specifications\1033\ directory under your Visual Studio installation directory.

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  • There was a gradual decline in sales. Sales declined gradually (noun usage) (verb usage) Enrollment increased by 4% in 1997. There was a 4% increase in enrollment in 1997. Immigration rose to 800,000 in 1999. Immigration rose by 20,000 in 1999. (to a point/number) (by increment) There was a 20% rise in immigration. (percentage)

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  • It is very difficult to determine what are the most popular of modern programming languages. Some languages are very popular for particular kinds of applications (e.g., COBOL is still strong in the corporate data center[citation needed], often on large mainframes, FORTRAN in engineering applications, scripting languages in Web development, and C in embedded applications), while some languages are regularly used to write many different kinds of applications. Also many applications use a mix of several languages in their construction and use.

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  • Every language contains complex expressions that are language-specific. The general problem when trying to build automated translation systems or human-readable dictionaries is to detect expressions that can be used idiomatically and then whether the expressions can be used idiomatically in a particular text, or whether a literal translation would be preferred. It follows from the definition of idiomatic expression that when a complex expression is used idiomatically, it contains at least one element which is semantically "out of context". ...

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  • Our goal is to identify the features that predict the occurrence and placement of discourse cues in tutorial explanations in order to aid in the automatic generation of explanations. Previous attempts to devise rules for text generation were based on intuition or small numbers of constructed examples. We apply a machine learning program, C4.5, to induce decision trees for cue occurrence and placement from a corpus of data coded for a variety of features previously thought to affect cue usage.

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  • We derive the rhetorical structures of texts by means of two new, surface-form-based algorithms: one that identifies discourse usages of cue phrases and breaks sentences into clauses, and one that produces valid rhetorical structure trees for unrestricted natural language texts. The algorithms use information that was derived from a corpus analysis of cue phrases.

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  • The nature and amount of information needed for learning a natural language, and the underlying mechanisms involved in this process, are the subject of much debate: is it possible to learn a language from usage data only, or some sort of innate knowledge and/or bias is needed to boost the process? This is a topic of interest to (psycho)linguists who study human language acquisition, as well as computational linguists who develop the knowledge sources necessary for largescale natural language processing systems. ...

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  • In this paper we present TroFi (Trope Finder), a system for automatically classifying literal and nonliteral usages of verbs through nearly unsupervised word-sense disambiguation and clustering techniques. TroFi uses sentential context instead of selectional constraint violations or paths in semantic hierarchies. It also uses literal and nonliteral seed sets acquired and cleaned without human supervision in order to bootstrap learning.

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  • Fluent English is a high intermediate-/advanced-level course in English as a second or foreign language. It is designed to meet the needs of the intermediate-level student in vocabulary, grammar, listening comprehension, idiomatic usage, and pronunciation. It offers a great deal of practice in each of these areas, through both written exercises and recorded materials. The language used in this course is realistic and practical, and the situations in each of its twenty lessons offer a cultural context that will be recognizable and relevant to most intermediate-level students of English....

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  • Pyle earned a bachelor’s degree in English in 1977 and a master’s degree in Linguistics in 1979. He has been involved in the field of English as a Second Language since he began work on his master’s degree in 1977. The original TOEFL test preparation book that he co-authored was created while Mike was teaching at the University of Florida’s English Language Institute and Santa Fe Community College in Gainesville, Florida in 1982. He also wrote Cliffs Advanced Practice for the TOEFL in 1992. Although Mike no longer actively teaches for any institution, he periodically...

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  • Since English is international language of business, a knowledge of English business terms is essential for successfull business peopel, even if their main function is not in international tradeAccording to Marcus Cunliffe, in The Literature of the United States, a chauvinistic delegate to the Continental Congress moved that the new nation drop the use of the English language entirely; William Morris, in Newsbreak (Stackpole, New...

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