The problem addressed in this paper is to segment a given multilingual document into segments for each language and then identify the language of each segment. The problem was motivated by an attempt to collect a large amount of linguistic data for non-major languages from the web.
A system has been programmed in JOVIAL to serve as a vehicle for testing hypotheses about language change through time. A basic requirement of the system is that models must be formulated within the framework of Sapir's concept of drift and Bloomfield's definition of a speech community.
We experiment with splitting words into their stem and sufﬁx components for modeling morphologically rich languages. We show that using a morphological analyzer and disambiguator results in a signiﬁcant perplexity reduction in Turkish. We present ﬂexible n-gram models, FlexGrams, which assume that the n−1 tokens that determine the probability of a given token can be chosen anywhere in the sentence rather than the preceding n − 1 positions. Our ﬁnal model achieves 27% perplexity reduction compared to the standard n-gram model. ...
language use: the ability to write correct & appropriate sentences
mechanical skills: the ability to use correct conventions of written language e.g. spelling, punctuation..
treatment of content: the ability to think creatively and develop thought without any relevant information
Sociolinguists have long argued that social context influences language use in all manner of ways, resulting in lects 1 . This paper explores a text classification problem we will call lect modeling, an example of what has been termed computational sociolinguistics. In particular, we use machine learning techniques to identify social power relationships between members of a social network, based purely on the content of their interpersonal communication.
For 20 years, information extraction has focused on facts expressed in text. In contrast, this paper is a snapshot of research in progress on inferring properties and relationships among participants in dialogs, even though these properties/relationships need not be expressed as facts. For instance, can a machine detect that someone is attempting to persuade another to action or to change beliefs or is asserting their credibility?
This paper describes the components used in the design of the commercial X u x e n I I spelling checker/corrector for Basque. It is a new version of the Xuxen spelling corrector (Aduriz et al., 97) which uses lexical transducers to improve the process. A very important new feature is the use of user dictionaries whose entries can recognise both the original and inflected forms. In languages with a high level of inflection such as Basque spelling checking cannot be resolved without adequate treatment of words from a morphological standpoint.
Part 2 of ebook "An Introduction to Applied Linguistics" provides to reader contents as: Applied linguistics and language use, the professionalising of applied linguists, applied linguistics: no ‘bookish theoric’, the applied linguistics challenge. Inviting you to refer.
Various text mining algorithms require the process of feature selection. High-level semantically rich features, such as ﬁgurative language uses, speech errors etc., are very promising for such problems as e.g. writing style detection, but automatic extraction of such features is a big challenge. In this paper, we propose a framework for ﬁgurative language use detection.
This paper presents a new approach for resolving lexical ambiguities in one language using statistical data on lexical relations in another language. This approach exploits the differences between mappings of words to senses in different languages. We concentrate on the problem of target word selection in machine translation, for which the approach is directly applicable, and employ a statistical model for the selection mechanism. The model was evaluated using two sets of Hebrew and German examples and was found to be very useful for disambiguation. ...
It has traditionally been assumed that Natural Language uses explicit quantifier expressions (such as "all" and "most", "the" and "a") for the purpose of quantification. We argue that expressions of the first type are comparatively rare in real world Natural Language sentences, and that the latter (articles) cannot be considered straightforward quantlfiers in the first place. H o w ever, practically all applications of Natural Language Processfng require sentences to be quantified unambiguously.
Chapter 10 - Building systems & applications: software development, programming, & languages. The topics discussed in this chapter are: Systems development & the life cycle of a software project; programming: traditionally a five-step procedure; five generations of programming languages; programming languages used today; object-oriented & visual programming; markup & scripting languages.
Test your english vocabulary in use is designed to help students assess their vocabulary learning. It can be used independently as a testiing book, or by learners who are using english vocabulary in use and want to assess their progress. This book can help readers understand better grammar and writing correct English grammar
Fluent English is a high intermediate-/advanced-level course in English as a second or foreign language. It is designed to meet the needs of the intermediate-level student in vocabulary, grammar, listening comprehension, idiomatic usage, and pronunciation. It offers a great deal of practice in each of these areas, through both written exercises and recorded materials. The language used in this course is realistic and practical, and the situations in each of its twenty lessons offer a cultural context that will be recognizable and relevant to most intermediate-level students of English....
Since its first publication in 1974, Use Your Head has acquired the status of a classic. Translated into twelve languages, with worldwide sales well in excess of 250,000, Tony Buzan's book has helped scores of people to understand the true capacity of the human brain and realise and develop many of the abilities that normally lie dormant. Now in a new and revised edition of his classic bestseller, Tony Buzan explains the latest discoveries about the brain and helps you to understand more clearly how your mind works....
This book is designed to revise and consolidate grammar points at the level of Council
of Europe Framework (CEF)Bl and B2. It assumes that some basic points have been
covered. These can be practised in Macmillan English Grammar In Context Essential.
The practice material includes a wide range of topics to reflect both everyday language
use and the kinds of subjects learners might be studying in schools or colleges.
Grammar in use is a textbook for intermediate students of English who need to study and practice using of the language of the language. It can be used as a classroom text or for slef- study. It wil be especially useful where, in the teacher's view, existing course materials do not provide adequate coverage of grammar.
Vocabulary is about words – where they come from, how they change, how
they relate to each other and how we use them to view the world. You have
been using words since before your second birthday to understand the wishes
of others and to make your own wishes and feelings known. Here you will be
asked to consider words in an objective manner – while remembering that
objectivity should not exclude a certain amount of entertainment.
A fully updated version of the world's bestselling grammar title - extra practice is also available on the interactive CD-ROM that accompanies the book. Now in full colour, with new units, more exercises and a new CD-ROM. This edition retains all the clarity and ease-of-use that have made the book so popular with students and teachers. This exciting and substantial new CD-ROM offers a wealth of extra practice material covering all the language in English Grammar in Use Third Edition. It provides interactive grammar practice exercises which link with each unit in the book.
Allan Pease is head of Pease Training Corporation, a
sales and communication training company in Sydney.
Australia He lectures extensively throughout the world and
his books, films and training programmes are used by
organisations everywhere to train members and staff in