Laparoscopic assessment

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  • The field of general surgery has changed dramatically over the last ten years with the acceptance of laparoscopy as an extension of the scalpel. Once ridiculed by most academic centers, laparoscopy has revolutionized the management of biliary tract disease and has led to a critical reassessment of how patients with other general surgical problems are managed. The rapid advancement and acceptance of laparoscopy as a part of general surgery is apparent today since most academic centers have laparoscopic sections and many offer laparoscopic fellowships....

    pdf257p tom_123 15-11-2012 28 6   Download

  • Before deciding whether to buy a good or service, consumers often have the opportunity to gather information or simply spend time thinking about how much they would enjoy the good. Gathering or processing information is costly, in terms of money, time, and e¤ort. A …rm, through its advertising, product design, and marketing strategies, can a¤ect these costs and make it easier or harder for consumers to assess whether a product is a good match for their needs or preferences.

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  • Further, Le Trong Trai et al. (2001) described that payments from these national forestry programs have provided benefits to villagers in the short term, and Acacia spp. and pine plantations established under these programs are growing reasonably well. However, villagers brought attention to a number of problems they had to face in response to the needs of the national forestry programs.

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  • The unprecedented prospect of human-induced (rapid) changes to the global climate has prompted a large international scientific effort to assess the evidence. The IPCC, established within the UN framework in 1988, was charged with advis- ing national governments on the causes and processes of climate change; likely impacts and their associated costs; and ways to lessen the impacts. The IPCC’s Third Assessment Report (2001) projects an increase in average world surface temperature ranging from 1.4 to 5.8°C over the course of the twenty-first century (see Figure 1.1).

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  • It is common practice to recommend nutritional supplementation, such as multi-vitamins and iron, following bariatric surgery for all patients. However, evidence is scarce regarding specific recommendations for pregnant women. We did not identify any randomized studies assessing this question of efficacy of management strategies. Studies evaluating pregnancy following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding or gastric bypass have shown minimal nutritional adverse events; however, most of these studies monitored and ensured that the women complied with vitamin supplementation.

    pdf43p thankinhphanliet 21-12-2012 16 4   Download

  • We did not identify any prospective cohort studies, which would be the strongest study design to assess this question of risk. Consequently, our conclusions are tempered by the limited available evidence. Based on these data, gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable band seem to confer minimal if any risk for nutrient problems, as long as maternal nutrition is maintained.

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