In the High Middle Ages, Europe saw explosive urban growth, a revival of trade, and an emboldened Catholic Church. Yet catastrophic setbacks followed in the form of plague, economic collapse, and war. Christianity remained a focus of European life, but centuries of confrontation with the monarchies left the Church weakened.
For a long time, research on developmental issues in the biological and
social sciences was mostly concerned with the early parts of life, such as
infancy and adolescence. Studies paying full attention to people after they
had passed through late adolescence were rare even though we all know
that humans continue to develop. The dynamics of adult life can be as
forceful and full of transitory states as is life before 20. Individual
development is a lifelong process: from the moment of conception to the
moment of death.
While there appears to be a rising incidence of problem drinking in the elderly, there are
also reports that low risk drinking may provide benefits to older populations. Indeed.
arguably most of the supposed benefits of alcohol consumption are to be found in older
people. So, for example, the claimed protective effect of alcohol in regard to
cardiovascular disease applies to the late middle aged and elderly. For this reason, the
recommended optimum level of alcohol consumption for health is higher for the elderly
than the young.
While this book was being written, digital sound synthesis reached something of a milestone—its
50th birthday. Set against the leisurely pace of the development and evolution of acoustic musical
instruments in previous years, a half century is not a long time. But given the rate at which
computational power has increased in the past decades, it is fair to say that digital sound is, if
not old, at least enjoying a robust middle age.
Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic.
When Claus-Dieter Ehlermann asked me in late December 2004 whether I
would be willing to contribute to the 10th Annual Competition Law and
Policy Workshop, I was not quite sure whether he was about to offer me a
Christmas gift or another Dardanians’ present.
1 After all, the relationship
between the protection of intellectual property and the maintenance of free
competition is the subject of an age-old debate2 to which I had already con-
tributed too much, with too little impact.
The data conﬁrm the expected role of population and income.
Early- and middle-adopting DMAs had, on average, ﬁve times
larger populations and 24% larger per capita incomes than late-
adopting DMAs. After controlling for log population and income,
however, differences between early and late adopters appearmuch
more idiosyncratic. Indeed, in regressions controlling for log pop-
ulation and income, F-tests show no statistically signiﬁcant re-
lationship between television adoption category and percent high
school educated, median age, or percent nonwhite at the DMA