The primary duties of the transport layer, Layer 4 of the OSI model, are to transport and regulate the flow of information from the source to the destination, reliably and accurately. End-to-end control and reliability are provided by sliding windows, sequencing numbers, and acknowledgments
To understand reliability and flow control, think of someone who studies a foreign language for one year and then they visit the country where that language is used.
CSc 352: Basic Unix presents of Layers of a Unix system; Referring to files Absolute Paths; Home directories; Input and output; Unix Commands; Combining commands; Finding out about commands I; Some other useful commands;...
After studying this chapter students will be able to: Explain how network layer protocols and services support communications across data networks, explain how routers enable end-to-end connectivity in a small to medium-sized business network, determine the appropriate device to route traffic in a small to medium-sized business network, Configure a router with basic configurations.
Chapter summary: Network layer protocols are responsible for end-to-end communications across the network, IP is a connectionless protocol that encapsulates transport layer data into datagrams, IPX is a proprietary standard that performs routing, addressing, and protocol identification, NetBEUI is used by small Windows networks for LAN networking, AppleTalk provides basic networking to small networks.
The Basic 3D effect manipulates a layer in an imaginary 3D space. You can rotate your image around
horizontal and vertical axes and move it toward or away from you. With Basic 3D, you can also create a
specular highlight to give the effect of light reﬂecting off a rotated surface. The light source for the specular
highlight is always above, behind, and to the left of the viewer. Because the light comes from above, the
image must be tilted backward to see this reﬂection. This can enhance the realism of the 3D appearance.
The specular highlight can be viewed...
Làm thế nào không ATM làm việc
Chương này giải thích các khái niệm cơ bản đặt nền tảng cho công nghệ ATM. Người đọc là sự hiểu biết chuyên sâu của các điều khoản như các tế bào ATM, ghép kênh thống kê, chuyển mạch ATM và chế biến lớp ATM. Các lớp của mô hình tham chiếu ATM được thảo luận và giải thích. Xem chuyên sâu bao gồm các lớp vật lý, ATM và thích ứng ATM Layer.
This lab is designed to walk you through a basic VLAN configuration using two Catalyst 1900 (or 2820) series
This lab shows you step-by-step what commands to type in and how to check that you have configured things
correctly. Each switch must be configured with the Enterprise edition software. The Cisco IOS software CLI is not
available if the switch has been configured with the Standard edition software.
How hosts tell routers about group membership
Routers solicit group membership from directly connected hosts
RFC 1112 specifies first version of IGMP
RFC 2236 specifies current version of IGMP
IGMP v3 enhancements
Supported on UNIX systems, PCs, and MACs
Explain the role of Physical layer protocols and services in supporting communication across data networks. – Describe the role of signals used to represent bits as a frame as the frame is transported across the local media Describe the purpose of Physical layer signaling and encoding as they are used in networks Identify the basic characteristics of copper, fiber and wireless network media Describe common uses of copper, fiber and wireless network media
Sometime in early 1993, I was working for a how-to photography
book publisher as an editor/designer. We had Photoshop 2.5
and I used it to make adjustments to scan the images and
illustrations to make them ready for print. Photoshop was fairly
new at the time; it didn’t yet have all of the features that would, not
much later, make it the industry standard in image editing.
This book helps newcomers get started with a look at the basics of network programming as they relate to C#, including the language s network classes, the Winsock interface, and DNS resolution. Table of Contents C# Network Programming Introduction Part I - Network Programming Basics Ch apt - The C# Language er 1 Ch apt - IP Programming Basics er 2 Ch apt - C# Network Programming Classes er 3 Ch apt - DNS and C# er 4 Part II - Network Layer Programing Ch apt - Connection-Oriented Sockets er 5 Ch apt - Connectionless Sockets er 6 Ch apt...
Physical Layer. In this chapter, you will learn to:
Explain the role of Physical layer protocols and services in supporting communication across data networks.
Describe the purpose of Physical layer signaling and encoding as they are used in networks.
Describe the role of signals used to represent bits as a frame is transported across the local media.
Identify the basic characteristics of copper, fiber, and wireless network media.
There are between 20,000 and 30,000 registered screen printing companies
in the U.S. and many thousands more worldwide. Additionally, there
are thousands of companies that are run from backyards, garages, and
storage facilities. All of these screen printing companies have one thing
in common—they all use some type of graphics program to create artwork,
work with client files, and print out specialty prints and color
separations for their film and screens. Many of these artists use some
version of Photoshop; unfortunately, there isn’t a single book available on
the subject…until now!...
This lab focuses on the ability to connect two simple LANs, each consisting of a workstation and a
switch or hub, to form a basic router-to-router WAN. A router is a networking device that can be
used to interconnect LANs which routes packets between different networks using Layer 3 IP
addressing. Routers are typically used to connect the Internet.
In addition to the physical and data link connections, which are layers 1 and 2, the computers and
routers must also be configured with the correct IP network settings, which is Layer 3, so that they
Networking Standards and the OSI Model
Identify organizations that set standards for networking.
Describe the purpose of the OSI Model and each of its layers
Explain specific functions belonging to each OSI Model layer
Understand how two network nodes communicate through the OSI model
Discuss the structure and purpose of data packets and frames.
Describe the two types of addressing covered by the OSI Model.
The definition of a distributed system (1)
A distributed system is:
A collection of independent
computers appears to its
user as a single combine
thong.Mot distribution system organized as middleware.
Note that the intermediate layer extended over multiple computers.
In a matter of a few short years,
the underwater digital camera
went from a novelty item to the
predominant method for taking
underwater pictures. Never before has
a technology advanced so rapidly.
Thanks to digital, though, underwater
photography has evolved into a shootto-
edit process. Rather than having to
get each image just right as you did
when using film, you now have the
option of editing the image postcapture.
Ion implantation represents a particularly useful means by which to modify the
surface properties of a variety of materials. This prosaic statement, however, does not
convey the depth of basic understanding which has been developed to fully utilize the
advantages of ion implantation. The interaction of a host lattice with the energetic
beams produces metastable states and structures which cannot be achieved by other
means. However, ion implantation also requires an understanding of the fundamental
physics and chemistry that dictate the interaction of the ion beam and the target.