Some years ago a consortium of enterprises and a university from different European countries and industrial sectors was established
to work together in the development of lighter lead–acid batteries for electrical and conventional vehicles with new innovative materials
and process techniques, with the final goal of increasing the energy density by means of a battery weight reduction. Its main idea was to
substitute the heavy lead alloy grids mechanical support of the active masses and collectors of the current produced during the charge
and discharge reactions.
ELSEVIER Journal of Power Sources 60 ( 1996) I-124.Publications on lead/acid batteries and related phenomena: lo-year compilation 1984-94,D.A.J. Rand CSIRO, Division ofMinerals. PO Box 124, Port Melbourne, Vie. 3207, Australia Contents A. Battery components (lead( II) oxides, electrolyte, separators, etc.) B. Lead and lead alloys (including battery recycling).
The use of copper and its alloys by humans goes back thousands of years. Probably
copper is the most ancient metal extracted and processed by mankind. With good
strength and ductility, ease of processing and good availability, copper has been for
millennia an excellent material for creating objects, jewelry and tools of daily use or
components with high technological content.
The Elastomeric Alloy (EA) materials based on polypropylene (PP) and Vietnam waste Rubber Powder (RP) has been prepared in internal mixer of Haake in melting state with peroxide initiator. Dynamically stabilizing process at presence of radical donor and acceptor systems has leaded to form chemical bonds on the surface between two phases of surspending rubber powder and PP matrix and then to form intermediate phase surrounding Rubber Particles and making EA higher dense than that of materials by simple mixing RP and PP without networking.
The steady increase in industrialization, urbanization and enormous population
growth are leading to production of huge quantities of wastewaters that may frequently
cause environmental hazards. Raw or treated waste water is very oft en discharged
to freshwaters and results in changing ecological performance and biological diversity
of these systems. About 70% of water supplied ends up as wastewater and several natural
water reservoirs are being contaminated by untreated sewage/industrial effl uents.
This makes waste water treatment and waste water reduction very important issues....
Ever since the invention of arc technology in 1870s and it's early use for welding lead
during the manufacture of lead-acid batteries, advances in arc welding throughout the
twentieth and twenty-first centuries have seen this form of processing applied to a
range of industries and progress to become one of the most effective techniques in
metals and alloys joining.
Telemetry is based on knowledge of various disciplines like Electronics, Measurement, Control and Communication along with their combination. This fact leads to a need of studying and understanding of these principles before the usage of Telemetry on selected problem solving. Spending time is however many times returned in form of obtained data or knowledge which telemetry system can provide. Usage of telemetry can be found in many areas from military through biomedical to real medical applications....
Over the past decade, there has been a prolific increase in the research, development
and commercialisation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and their associated technologies
(see Figure 1). This rise has been a result of a number of contributing factors,
including continued miniaturisation (leading towards an era of truly ‘pervasive’ and
‘invisible’ computing); low-power circuits, devices and computation (for example, the
ultra-low-power sleep states now found in microcontrollers); and efficient short-range
communication (such as ZigBee and Bluetooth).
In the past decades, significant advances in tribology have been made as engineers
strive to develop more reliable and high performance products. The advancements are
mainly driven by the evolution of computational techniques and experimental
characterization that leads to a thorough understanding of tribological process on both
macro- and microscales.
Vibrations are a part of our environment and daily life. Many of them are useful and are
needed for many purposes, one of the best example being the hearing system. Nevertheless,
vibrations are often undesirable and have to be suppressed or reduced, as they may be harmful
to structures by generating damages (possibly leading to dramatic and spectacular accidents
such as the case of the Aloha 243 fl ight or the bridge of Tacoma Narrows) or compromise the
comfort of users through noise generation of mechanical wave transmission to the body....
The municipal and industrial activities of the man affects human health, leads to
degradation of the environment and even degradation of the objects built by himself or
his predecessors. The pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere with off-gases from
industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles, some additional
emissions come from the natural sources as volcanoes as well. Fossil fuels, which include
coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat, electrical
energy and are the basic duels for the engines of the transport vehicles....
Chapter 3: Elements of Style
Points and picas are traditional typographic measures. There are 12 points to a pica and 6 picas to an inch. Therefore, a font size of 18 points is equivalent to 1.5 picas, or .25 inches. Ems and exes are also typographic measures. Like a percentage value, they specify sizes relative to the element’s computed size rather than an absolute number of units. When type was set using individual letters cast in lead alloy, font sets included spacer characters of different sizes. An em-quad was a square space just large enough to contain an uppercase M. Exes...
For courses in Motorcycle Mechanics. Complete and comprehensive introductory textbook for a one semester or year program in motorcycle mechanics. This expanded and updated text reference is sponsored by the leading school for training motorcycle mechanics.
Reliability engineering and predictive maintenance have two major objectives: preventing
catastrophic failures of critical plant production systems and avoiding deviations
from acceptable performance levels that result in personal injury, environmental
impact, capacity loss, or poor product quality. Unfortunately, these events will occur
no matter how effective the reliability program. Therefore, a viable program also must
include a process for fully understanding and correcting the root causes that lead to
events having an impact on plant performance....
The automotive industry is experiencing a considerable “stress period”, which can lead
to important changes in the whole industry. Many aspects contribute to this situation,
starting from the global recession (unemployment rates, slowing growth, etc.) to
credit meltdown (dependency of car sales on credit, OEM refi nancing, etc.) and fi nishing
with globalization aspects (global sourcing, foreign investments, etc.) and “green
challenges” (both for the industry and the fi nal products)....
Biomimetics is the science of emulating nature’s design. In nature, living organisms
synthesize mineralized tissues and this process of biomineralization is under strict biological
control. It involves the interactions of several biological macromolecules among
themselves and with the mineral components. Generally, natures design principles are
based on a “Bott om-Up” strategy. Such processes lead to the formation of hierarchically
structured organic-inorganic composites with mechanical properties optimized for a
In the past several years, there have been many developments in the materials for lead–acid batteries. Silver in grid alloys for high temperature climates in SLI batteries has increased the silver content of the recycled lead stream. Concern about silver and other contaminants in lead for the active material for VRLA batteries led to the initiation of a study by ALABC at CSIRO. The study evaluated the effects of many different impurities on the hydrogen and oxygen evolution currents in ﬂoat service for ﬂooded and VRLA batteries at different temperatures and potentials. ...
The concept of acoustic wave is a pervasive one, which emerges in any type of medium, from solids to plasmas, at length and time scales ranging from sub-micrometric layers in microdevices to seismic waves in the Sun's interior. This book presents several aspects of the active research ongoing in this field. Theoretical efforts are leading to a deeper understanding of phenomena, also in complicated environments like the solar surface boundary.
This book reviews a wide range of diverse topics related to the phenomenon of ferroelectricity
(in the bulk as well as thin fi lm form) and provides a forum for scientists,
engineers, and students working in this fi eld. It contains records of original research
that provide or lead to fundamental principles in the science of ferroelectric materials.
Energy demands due to economic growth and increasing population must be satisfied
in a sustainable manner assuring inherent safety, efficiency and no or minimized
environmental impact. New energy sources and systems must be inherently safe and
environmentally benign. These considerations are among the reasons that lead to
serious interest in deploying nuclear power as a sustainable energy source.