In this Unit, you will discover What molecules make up cells How the cell membrane separates cells from their external environment but allows substances into and out of the cell What special functions cell structures have and how these contribute to keeping an organism alive What processes in cells capture and release the energy needed for survival and how we harness these processes
It has been said that we are made of the stuff of
stars. What do you think this means? The pine wood cells pictured on the right and all other organisms on Earth are made mostly of only...
from the Latin cella, meaning storeroom or chamber. It was first used in biology in 1665 by the English botanist Robert Hooke to describe the individual units of the honeycomb-like structure he observed in cork under a compound microscope. The “cells” Hooke observed were actually the empty lumens of dead cells surrounded by cell walls, but the term is an apt one because cells are the basic building blocks that define plant structure. This book will emphasize the physi
In this chapter, you will: Define protein conformation and native conformation, know the difference between a simple and conjugated protein, know what homomeric and heteromeric proteins are, know what monomeric and multimeric proteins are, know the general properties of fibrous and globular proteins, know the 4 levels of protein structure, know the 4 non-covalent forces that are important in determining protein structure,...
After studying this chapter you will be able to: Know that primary structure determines protein conformation, define domains, motifs combine through hydrophobic interactions to form domains, know general properties of a protein with 4o structure, know the definition of an oligomeric protein, know 4o structure nomenclature, be able to determine the subunit composition of an oligomeric protein using information obtained from gel permeation chromatography and SDS PAGE analysis,...
Malcolm Hill is an Assistant Professor of Biology at Fairfield University where he
teaches General Biology and Evolution (both for majors). He also teaches an
evolution course for non-majors. His research focuses on the evolutionary ecology of
April Hill is an Assistant Professor of Biology at Fairfield University where she
teaches Genetics and Developmental Biology. She is an active proponent of
incorporating information technology in her lectures.
In chapter 9 (part 2), you will know that isoprenoids are derived from 5 carbon isoprene units that can condense in a head to head or head to tail manner to make a large array of isoprenoid compounds; know the general ring structure of a steroid molecule; know the general functions of common steroids (Cholesterol, steroid hormones); know general functions of membranes; know properties and components of the fluid mosaic model for biological membranes.
After completing chapter 21 (part 1), students will be able to: Know the central dogma of Biology; know what housekeeping genes are; know the different type of RNA and there roles in the cell; know the relationship between RNA steady state abundance, rate of synthesis, and stability; know what happens during the different stages of replication;...
Chapter 9: DNA-protein interactions in bacteria. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: The λ family of repressors, the trp repressor, general considerations on Protein–DNA interactions, DNA-binding proteins: action at a distance,...and other contents.
Chapter 13 - The peripheral nervous system and reflex activity (part b). This chapter define ganglion and indicate the general body location of ganglia, describe the general structure of a nerve, follow the process of nerve regeneration, name the 12 pairs of cranial nerves, indicate the body region and structures innervated by each.
Fatty acids represent the principal form of stored energy for many organisms. There are two important advantages to storing energy in the form of fatty acids. The carbon in fatty acids is almost completely reduced compared to the carbon in other simple biomolecules. Therefore, oxidation of fatty acids will yield more energy (in the form of ATP) than any other form of carbon. Fatty acids are not generally as hydrated as monosaccharides and polysaccharides are, and thus they can pack more closely in storage tissues.
In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: DNA replication is semiconservative, general features of DNA replication, DNA polymerases, the mechanism of DNA replication, eukaryotic DNA replication, telomeres and telemerases, reverse transcriptase, DNA repair.
Chapter 9 - DNA-Protein interactions in bacteria. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: The λ family of repressors, the trp repressor, general considerations on Protein–DNA interactions, DNA-binding proteins: action at a distance,...
Eukaryotic RNA polymerases, unlike their bacterial counterparts, are incapable of binding by themselves to their respective promoters. Instead, they rely on proteins called transcription factors to show them the way. Such factors are grouped into two classes: general transcription factors and gene-specifi c transcription factors (activators). In this chapter we will survey the general transcription factors that interact with all three RNA polymerases and their promoters.
Chapter 9 - Cellular respiration: harvesting chemical energy. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Explain in general terms how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges; name the three stages of cellular respiration, for each, state the region of the eukaryotic cell where it occurs and the products that result; in general terms, explain the role of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration;...
Chapter 11 - general transcription factors in eukaryotes. Eukaryotic RNA polymerases, unlike their bacterial counterparts, are incapable of binding by themselves to their respective promoters. Instead, they rely on proteins called transcription factors to show them the way. Such factors are grouped into two classes: general transcription factors and gene-specifi c transcription factors (activators). In this chapter we will survey the general transcription factors that interact with all three RNA polymerases and their promoters.
Chapter 19 - Cellular mechanismsof development, in this chapter, you will learn: In general terms, compare and contrast plant and animal developmental processes; understand the stages of development, from cleavage to organogenesis, in a model vertebrate; describe the stages of development in a representative insect from the influence of maternal genes to metamorphosis;...
Chapter 8 part a provides knowledge of classification of joints, fibrous joints and cartilaginous joints. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Define joint or articulation, classify joints by structure and by function, describe the general structure of fibrous joints, name and give an example of each of the three common types of fibrous joints, describe the general structure of cartilaginous joints, name and give an example of each of the two common types of cartilaginous joints.
In this chapter, you will learn to: Define peripheral nervous system and list its components; classify general sensory receptors by structure, stimulus detected, and body location; outline the events that lead to sensation and perception; describe receptor and generator potentials and sensory adaptation; describe the main aspects of sensory perception.
The peripheral nervous system and reflex activity (part c) provides knowledge of spinal nerves. The goal is for you to learn: Describe the formation of a spinal nerve and the general distribution of its rami; define plexus, name the major plexuses and describe the distribution and function of the peripheral nerves arising from each plexus.
After completing this unit, you should be able to: Describe the structure and general function of the outer, middle, and internal ears; describe the sound conduction pathway to the fluids of the internal ear, and follow the auditory pathway from the spiral organ (of Corti) to the temporal cortex; explain how one is able to differentiate pitch and loudness, and localize the source of sounds;...